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  Aircraft History, Specification and Information
North American T-6 Texan / SNJ / Harvard
 
CF-GME and CF-RFS
Harvard II CF-GME and Harvard IV CF-RFS
Photo taken Sep. 11, 2010
Penticton, BC - Canada (YYF / CYYF)
Photo © Marcel Siegenthaler

The North American Aviation T-6 Texan is a single-engined advanced trainer aircraft used to train pilots of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF), United States Navy, Royal Air Force and other air forces of the British Commonwealth during World War II and into the 1970s. Designed by North American Aviation, the T-6 is known by a variety of designations depending on the model and operating air force. The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) and USAAF designated it as the AT-6, the United States Navy the SNJ, and British Commonwealth air forces, the Harvard, the name it is best known by outside of the US. After 1962, US forces designated it the T-6. It remains a popular warbird aircraft used for airshow demonstrations and static displays. It has also been used many times to simulate the Japanese Mitsubishi Zero in movies depicting World War II in the Pacific.

Development

C-FSPC
1952 Harvard 4 - C-FSPC (sn CCF4 145) "Pussycat II"
Manufacturer: Canadian Car & Foundry Co. Ltd
Photo taken Sep. 12, 2015
Oliver, BC - Canada (AU3 / CAU3)
Photo © Marcel Siegenthaler
CF-VNI
1951 Harvard 4 - CF-VNI (sn CCF4-7) "Kermit"
Manufacturer: Canadian Car & Foundry Co. Ltd
Photo taken Sep. 12, 2015
Oliver, BC - Canada (AU3 / CAU3)
Photo © Marcel Siegenthaler
D-FABE
North American T-6 Harvard - D-FABE (sn CCF4-499)
Photo taken Sep. 1, 2012
Weinheim-Bergstrasse - Germany (EDGZ)
Photo © Marcel Siegenthaler
CF-PST
1943 North American Harvard II - CF-PST (sn 81-4043)
Manufacturer: North American Aviation, Inc.
Photo taken Sep. 12, 2015
Oliver, BC - Canada (AU3 / CAU3)
Photo © Marcel Siegenthaler

The Texan originated from the North American NA-16 prototype (first flown on April 1, 1935) which, modified as the NA-26, was submitted as an entry for a USAAC "Basic Combat" aircraft competition in March, 1937. The first model went into production and 180 were supplied to the USAAC as the BC-1 and 400 to the RAF as the Harvard I. The US Navy received 16 modified aircraft, designated the SNJ-1, and a further 61 as the SNJ-2 with a different engine.

The BC-1 was the production version of the NA-26 prototype, with retractable tailwheel landing gear and the provision for armament, a two-way radio, and the 550 hp (410 kW) R-1340-47 engine as standard equipment. Production versions included the BC-1 (Model NA-36) with only minor modifications (177 built), of which 30 were modified as BC-1I instrument trainers; the BC-1A (NA-55) with airframe revisions (92 built); and a single BC-1B with a modified wing center-section.

Three BC-2 aircraft were built before the shift to the "advanced trainer" designation, AT-6, which was equivalent to the BC-1A. The differences between the AT-6 and the BC-1 were new outer wing panels with a swept forward trailing edge, squared-off wingtips and a triangular rudder, producing the canonical Texan silhouette. After a change to the rear of the canopy, the AT-6 was designated the Harvard II for RAF/RCAF orders and 1,173 were supplied by purchase or Lend Lease, mostly operating in Canada as part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan.

Next came the AT-6A which was based on the NA-77 design and was powered by the Pratt & Whitney R-1340-49 Wasp radial engine. The USAAF received 1,549 and the US Navy 270 (as the SNJ-3). The AT-6B was built for gunnery training and could mount a .30 in machine gun on the forward fuselage. It used the R-1340-AN-1 engine, which was to become the standard for the remaining T-6 production. Canada's Noorduyn Aviation built an R-1340-AN-1-powered version of the AT-6A, which was supplied to the USAAF as the AT-16 (1,500 aircraft) and the RAF/RCAF as the Harvard IIB (2,485 aircraft), some of which also served with the Fleet Air Arm and Royal Canadian Navy.

In late 1937 Mitsubushi purchased two NA-16s as technology demonstrators and possibly a licence to build more. However, the aircraft developed by Watanabe/Kyushu as the K10W1 (Allied code name Oak) bore no more than a superficial resemblance to the North American design. It featured a full monocoque fuselage as opposed to the steel tube fuselage of the T-6 and NA-16 family of aircraft, as well as being of smaller dimensions overall and had no design details in common with the T-6. It was used in very small numbers by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1942 onwards. After the war the Japanese Air Self Defense Force operated Texans.

The NA-88 design resulted in 2,970 AT-6C Texans and 2,400 as the SNJ-4. The RAF received 726 of the AT-6C as the Harvard IIA. Modifications to the electrical system produced the AT-6D (3,713 produced) and SNJ-5 (1,357 produced). The AT-6D, redesignated the Harvard III, was supplied to the RAF (351 aircraft) and Fleet Air Arm (564 aircraft). The AT-6G (SNJ-7) involved major advancements including a full-time hydraulic system and a steerable tailwheel and persisted into the 1950s as the USAF advanced trainer.

Subsequently the NA-121 design with a completely clear rearmost section on the canopy, gave rise to 25 AT-6F Texans for the USAAF and 931, as the SNJ-6 for the US Navy. The ultimate version, the Harvard 4, was produced by Canada Car and Foundry during the 1950s, and supplied to the RCAF, USAF and Bundeswehr.

A total of 15,495 T-6s of all variants were built.

Operational history

Combat use

20 AT-6 Texans were employed by the 1st and 2nd fighter squadrons of the Syrian Air Force in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, providing ground support for Syrian troops, and launching air strikes against Israeli airfields, ships, and columns, losing one aircraft to anti-aircraft fire. They also engaged in air-to-air combat on a number of occasions, with a tail gunner shooting down an Israeli Avia S-199 fighter.

The Israeli Air Force (IAF) bought 17 Harvards, and operated nine of them in the final stages of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, against the Egyptian ground forces, with no losses. In the Sinai Campaign IAF Harvards attacked Egyptian ground forces in Sinai Peninsula with two losses.

The Royal Hellenic Air Force employed three squadrons of British and American supplied T-6D and G Texans for close air support, observation, and artillery spotting duties during the Greek Civil War, providing extensive support to the Greek army during the Battle of Gramos. Communist guerillas called these aircraft "O Galatas" ("The Milkman"), because they saw them flying very early in the morning. After the "Milkmen", the guerillas waited for the armed Spitfires and Helldivers.

During the Korean War and, to a lesser extent, the Vietnam War, T-6s were pressed into service as forward air control aircraft. These aircraft were designated T-6 "Mosquitos".

No. 1340 Flight RAF used the Harvard in Kenya against the Mau Mau in the 1950s, where they operated with 20 lb bombs and machine guns against the gangs. Some operations took place at altitudes around 20,000 ft above mean sea level. A Harvard was the longest-serving RAF aeroplane, with an example, taken on strength in 1945, still serving in the 1990s (as a chase plane for helicopter test flights—a role for which the Shorts Tucano's high stall speed was ill-suited).

The T-6G was also used in a light attack or counter insurgency role by France during the Algerian war in special Escadrilles d'Aviation Légère d'Appui (EALA), armed with machine guns, bombs and rockets. At its peak, there were 38 EALAs active. The largest unit was the Groupe d'Aviation Légère d'Appui 72, which consisted of up to 21 EALAs.

From 1961 to 1975, Portugal used more than a hundred T-6Gs, also in the counter insurgency role, during the Portuguese Colonial War. During this war, almost all the Portuguese Air Force bases and air fields in Angola, Mozambique and Portuguese Guinea had a detachment of T-6Gs.

In 1955, Argentine Navy SNJ-4s were dispatched to attack government troops on June 16 during the Revolución Libertadora and one was shot down by a loyalist Gloster Meteor. Argentine Navy SNJ-4s were also were used by the Colorado rebels in the 1963 Argentine Navy Revolt, launching attacks on the 8th Regimiento de Caballería de Tanques on April 2 and 3, knocking out several M4 Sherman tanks but losing one SNJ to anti-aircraft fire.

In 1957-58, the Spanish Air Force used T-6s as counterinsurgency aircraft in the Ifni War, armed with machine guns, iron bombs and rockets, achieving an excellent reputation due to its reliability, safety record and resistance to damage.

The Pakistan Air Force used T-6Gs in the 1971 war as a night ground support aircraft hitting soft transport vehicles of the Indian army. In the early hours of 5 December, during a convoy interdiction mission in the same area, Squadron Leader Israr Quresh's T-6G Harvard was hit by Indian anti-aircraft ground fire and a shell fractured the pilot's right arm. Profusely bleeding, the pilot flew the aircraft back with his left hand and landed safely. The World War II vintage prop-engined trainers were pressed into service and performed satisfactorily in the assigned role of convoy escorters at night.

T-6s remained in service, mainly as a result of the United Nations arms embargo against South Africa's Apartheid policies, with the South African Air Force as a basic trainer until 1995. They were replaced by Pilatus PC-7MkII turboprop trainers.

Recent research testbed

The Harvard 4 has also been recently used in Canada as a testbed aircraft for evaluating cockpit attitude displays. Its aerobatic capability permits the instructor pilot to maneuver the aircraft into unusual attitudes, then turn the craft over to an evaluator pilot in the "blind" rear cockpit to recover, based on one of several digitally-generated attitude displays.

Variants

BT Series

  • BT-9
    Basic Trainer with 400hp Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind and new canopy. Dangerous stall resulted in a variety of unsuccessful fixes. 42 built.
  • BT-9A
    Armed BT-9 with one cowl gun and one rear flexible gun, and modified canopy. 40 built.
  • BT-9B
    Minor changes from BT-9, unarmed. 117 built. 1 modified as sole BT-9D which was modified as a prototype for BT-14 with new outer wing panels and other alterations.
  • BT-9C
    Wright R-975-7, similar to the BT-9A with minor changes. 66 built
  • BT-9D
    One prototype only, Intermediate step in development of the BT-14.
  • Y1BT-10
    600hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-41. First aircraft of batch of BT-9C completed as Y1BT-10.
  • BT-10
    Production version of Y1BT-10 - cancelled
  • BT-14
    lengthened all metal fuselage and new canopy, Pratt & Whitney R-985-25, 251 built.
  • BT-14A
    27 BT-14s were re-engined with 400 hp (298 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985-11.

BC Series

  • North American BC-1
    Basic Combat trainer version initial production version with 600hp R-1340-47 engine, Early examples had round rudder, later examples had square bottom rudder. 177 built
  • BC-1A
    New longer semi-monocoque fuselage, new outer wing panels angled forward slightly, squared-off wingtips and triangular rudder, 93 built. Identifiable from later types by blister fairing between undercarriage.
  • BC-1B
    One BC-1A fitted with an AT-6A wing centre section.
  • BC-1I
    BC-1s converted to instrument trainers, 30 modified
  • BC-2
    Similar to BC-1A and AT-6, modified from NA-36 with details from NA-44, 3 bladed propeller.

AT Series (Texan)

  • AT-6 Texan
    Advanced Trainer - same as BC-1A with minor changes, powered by a 600hp R-1340-47 and armed with forward-firing 0.3in machine gun, nine original started as BC-1As and 85 built.
  • AT-6A
    Same as AT-6 but with 600hp R-1340-49 and removable wing centre section fuel tanks, 1847 built with 298 transferred to the United States Navy as the SNJ-3. Survivors re-designated T-6A in 1948.
  • AT-6B
    Same as AT-6A but with 600hp R-1340-AN-1 and dorsal gun fitted as standard, 400 built.
  • AT-6C
    Same as AT-6B but with material changes to low-alloy steel and plywood, 2970 built including transfers to the United Kingdom as the Harvard III.
  • AT-6D
    Same as AT-6B but with a 24V DC electrical system, 4388 built including transfers to the United States Navy as the SNJ-5 and to the United Kingdom as the Harvard IIA. Redesignated T-6D in 1948.
  • XAT-6E
    One AT-6D re-engined with a 575hp V-770-9 V-12 inline engine for trials.
  • AT-6F
    Same as AT-6D but with a strengthened airframe and minor modifications, 956 b uilt including transfers to the United States Navy as the SNJ-6, Redesignated T-6F in 1948. Clear fixed rear canopy. Some went to Russia via Lend-Lease.
  • AT-16
    Noorduyn built lend-lease Harvards, 1800 built

A-27

  • North American A-27
    Two-seat attack version of AT-6 with a 785hp R-1820-75 engine and five 0.3in machine guns (two in nose, one on each wing and one dorsal). Designation used for ten aircraft for Thailand impressed into United States Army Air Corps use.

T-6 (Texan)

  • T-6A
    AT-6As re-designated in 1948.
  • T-6C
    AT-6Cs re-designated in 1948 including 68 re-builds with new serial numbers.
  • T-6D
    AT-6D re-designated in 1948 including 35 re-builds with new serial numbers.
  • T-6F
    AT-6F re-designated in 1948.
  • T-6G
    Earlier model AT-6/T-6s re-built between 1949-1953 with improved cockpit layout, increased fuel capacity, steerable tailwheel, updated radios and a 600hp R-1340-AN-1 engine. Identifiable by simplified canopy framing. 2068 modified.
  • LT-6G
    T-6Gs converted for battlefield surveillance and forward air controller duties, 97 modified. Nicknamed Mosquito.
  • T-6H
    T-6Fs converted T-6G standard.
  • T-6J
    Designation claimed to have been used for Canadian-built Harvard Mk 4s, however no proof has ever surfaced that this designation was ever used, and aircraft record cards and markings on aircraft called them Harvard 4s. Supplied to Belgian, France, Italy, Portugal and West Germany, 285 aircraft.
  • KN-1
    A single T-6F damaged in a crash during the Korean War that was rebuilt as a floatplane by the Republic of Korea Navy.

NJ/SNJ Texan

  • NJ-1
    United States Navy specification advanced trainer powered with 550hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340-6. Some re-engined with later versions of R-1340. Similar to BT-9, 40 built.
  • SNJ-1
    Similar to Harvard I but with BC-1 wing center section, metal-covered fuselage and late T-6 type wing, 16 built.
  • SNJ-2
    Same as SNJ-1 but with a R-1340-56 engine and changes to carborettor and oil cooler scoops, 61 built.
  • SNJ-3
    Same as AT-6A, 270 built and 296 transferred from USAAC.
  • SNJ-3C
    SNJ-3 converted as deck landing trainers with tailhook arrester gear, twelve modified.
  • SNJ-4
    Same as AT-6C, 1240 built.
  • SNJ-4C
    SNJ-4s converted as deck landing trainers with tailhook arrester gear.
  • SNJ-5
    AT-6Ds transferred from the USAAC, 1573 aircraft.
  • SNJ-5C
    SNJ-5s converted as deck landing trainers with tailhook arrester gear.
  • SNJ-6
    AT-6Fs transferred from the USAAF, 411 aircraft.
  • SNJ-7
    Early models modified to T-6G standards in 1952.
  • SNJ-7B
    An armed variant of the SNJ-7.
  • SNJ-8
    Order for 240 cancelled.

Harvard

  • Harvard I
    Similar to BC-1 but without rear gun and with a 600hp R-1340-S3H1 engine, 400 aircraft.
  • Harvard II
    Similar to BC-1A, 526 built, again without provision for rear gunner.
  • Harvard IIA (RAF & Commonwealth)
    AT-6C, many with wooden rear fuselages when first delivered.
  • Harvard IIA (RCAF)
    'Armed' Harvard II - Any RCAF Harvard II or IIB fitted with wing guns, rockets or bombs.
  • Harvard IIB
    Noorduyn built Mk.II's, some to US orders as AT-16's for lend-lease. Transfers back from the USAAF (1800) and 757 built.
  • Harvard T.T. IIB
    Target Tug - 42 aircraft built for the RAF by Noorduyn. Number probably included in II totals.
  • Harvard IIF
    Bombing/gunnery trainer - One-off modified from Mk.II with bomb aimer's blister and AT-6 type cockpit.
  • Harvard III
    AT-6D, 537 aircraft for RAF.
  • Harvard 4
    Canadian development of Harvard II paralleling the T-6G, and built by Canadian Car & Foundry, 270 for the RCAF and 285 for USAF. Some publications refer to these as T-6J however the aircraft record cards do not use this designation.
  • Harvard 4K
    Belgian designation for Harvard IIs and IIIs upgraded to roughly Harvard 4 specifications.
  • Harvard 4KA
    Belgian designation for armed variant of 4K.

North American company designations

NAA
Charge
Number
NAA Model
or Designation
Customer Engine Installed Number built/
Modified
Notes
NA-16 NA-16 USAAC (trials) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 1 Prototype NX-2080, was open cockpit, received greenhouse canopy for trials
NA-18 NA-18 USAAC (trials) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 1 (modified) Ex-NA-16, won against Seversky BT-8 and Curtiss-Wright CW-19R, to Argentina in 1937
NA-19 NA-19/BT-9 USAAC Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind (400 hp) 42 Minor changes from NA-18, new canopy
NA-19A NA-19A/BT-9A USAAC Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind (400 hp) 40 Armed BT-9 with one cowl gun and one rear flexible gun, and suitably modified canopy.
NA-20 NA-16-2H Trials, to Honduras (FAH) Wright R-975 Whirlwind (Unknown sub-type) 1 NC16025 originally intended as demonstrator for China
NA-22 NA-22 USAAC (rejected) Wright R-760ET (J-6-7) (225 hp) 1 Dangerously underpowered
NA-23 NA-23/BT-9B USAAC Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind (400 hp) 117 Unarmed. 1 modified as sole BT-9D as BT-14 prototype with new outer wings and other alterations.
NA-26 BC-1 Trials, to Canada (RCAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp (550 hp) 1 Basic Combat Demonstrator NX18990 - no relation to later BC-1, first retractable gear variant, later modified with Yale parts.
NA-27 NA-16-2H to Fokker and
R. Netherlands AF
Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S2H1 Wasp (500 hp) 1 European demonstrator armed NA-26 with fixed gear.
NA-28 NJ-1 USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340-6 Wasp (550 hp) 40 USN specification up engined BT-9 as advanced trainer, some reengined with later R-1340 versions.
NA-29 BT-9C USAAC Wright R-975-7 Whirlwind (400 hp) 67 as per BT-9A with minor changes. First aircraft completed as Y1BT-10.
NA-30 BT-10 USAAC (Cancelled) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-41 Wasp (600 hp) 0 cancelled production version of Y1BT-10
NA-31 NA-16-4M/
Sk-14/14A
Sweden (Flygvapnet) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind(420 hp)/
Piaggio P VIIc(525 hp)
137 BT-9C but different engine variant. Licence production (NAA built 1, ASJA 76, SAAB 60), Trialled undercarriage for Saab 21.
NA-32 NA-16-1A Australia (RAAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 1 Fixed gear pattern aircraft similar to NJ-1 or Y1BT-10, not followed up.
NA-33 NA-16-2K/
Wirraway
Australia (RAAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S1H1G (600 hp) 756 Retractable gear pattern aircraft for Australia, 1 built by NAA and 755 by Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation)
NA-34 NA-16-4P Argentina (FAA) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 29 First major export order (not licence), had 2 cowl guns, a flexible rear gun and a radio mast
NA-36 BC-1 USAAC Pratt & Whitney R-1340-47 Wasp(500 hp) 177 Retractable undercarriage and first aircraft with square bottom rudder. Large DF loop between undercarriage, blister covering fuel transfer gear along centerline aft of wheel wells.legs.
NA-37 NA-16-4R/KXA1 Japan (IJN) (Evaluation) Pratt & Whitney R-985-9CG Wasp Junior (500 hp) 1 Technology demonstrator, unarmed, fixed landing gear and three bladed prop.
NA-38 NA-16-4M Sweden (Flygvapnet) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 1 same as NA-31
NA-41 NA-16-4 China (ROCAF) Wright R-975 Whirlwind 35 Similar to BT-9C with short fabric covered fuselage, combat aircraft with two fixed forward guns and one flexible rear gun.
NA-42 NA-16-2A Honduras (FAH) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp (520 hp) 2
NA-43 NA-16-1G Brazil (Army) (Cancelled) Wright R-975 Whirlwind 0 Similar to BT-9C
NA-44 NA-44 to Canada (RCAF) Wright SG-1820-F52 Cyclone (750 hp) 1 Prototype two-seat export combat aircraft similar to BC-1A
NA-45 NA-16-1GV Venezuela (FAV) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 3 Possibly originally built to Brazilian contract
NA-46 NA-16-4 Brazil (Navy) Wright R-975-53 Whirlwind(400 hp) 12 Similar to BT-9C with wingtip slats, small DF loop under fuselage.
NA-47 NA-16-4RW/KXA-2 Japan (IJN) (Evaluation) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 1 Technology demonstrator
NA-48 NA-16-3C China (ROCAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 15 Similar to NA-45
NA-49 NA-16-1E/
Harvard I
United Kingdom (RAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp (600 hp) 400 Straight wing trailing edge, square rudder, short fabric covered fuselage, fixed rear canopy, no blister under wing center section
NA-50 NA-50 Peru (FAP) Wright R-1820-G3 Cyclone 7 Single-seat fighter, NA-16-5
NA-52 SNJ-1 USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340-6 Wasp(500 hp) 16 Short metal fuselage, square rudder, late wings, fixed rear on canopy
NA-54 BC-2 USAAC Pratt & Whitney R-1340-45 Wasp (600 hp) 3 Based on NA-36 with some improvements from NA-44, 3 bladed prop and two blister under wing center section.
NA-55-1 BC-1A USAAC Pratt & Whitney R-1340-47/-49 Wasp (600 hp) 83 Bought for researve and Air National Guard units.
NA-56 NA-16-4 China (ROCAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 50 Similar to NA-55 (long metal fuselage, fixed gear and engine differences)
NA-57 NA-57/
NAA 57 P-2
France (Armée de l'Air) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 230 Improved NA-23, many captured and used by Germany, some retained by Vichy France
NA-58 BT-14/BT-14A USAAC Pratt & Whitney R-985-25 Wasp Junior 251 Similar to Harvard II except for fixed undercarriage and smaller engine. 27 re-engined with 400 hp (298 kW) Pratt & Whitney R-985-11 as BT-14A
NA-59 AT-6-NA USAAC Pratt & Whitney R-1340-47 Wasp (600 hp) 94 First examples converted from NA-55 while still on production line, some examples had small DF loop installed
NA-61 NA-16-1E/
Harvard I
Canada (RCAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp (600 hp) 30 Later fitted with extended exhaust for cabin heater
NA-64 NA-64/
NAA 64-P2/
Yale I
France (Armée de l'Air) Wright R-975-E3 Whirlwind (420 hp) 230 119 to Canada (RCAF) as Yale I, briefly used by France, many captured by Germany
NA-65 SNJ-2 USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340-36 Wasp 36 Blister covering fuel transfer gear along centerline aft of wheel wells
NA-66 Harvard II United Kingdom (RAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 600 as per NA-59 but fixed rear canopy and no rear gun, also to RNZAF and RCAF, Southern Rhodesia
NA-68 NA-50A/P-64 Thailand (RTAF) Wright R-1820-77 Cyclone (870 hp) 6 Short outer wing panel angled much further forward than earlier types. Diverted with start of Pacific war to USAAF as P-64
NA-69 NA-44/A-27 Thailand (RTAF) Wright R-1820-75 Cyclone (745 hp) 10 Fully armed as attack aircraft. Diverted with start of Pacific war to USAAF as A-27
NA-71 NA-16-3 Venezuela (FAV) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-S3H1 Wasp (550 hp) 3 Two nose guns and rear gun, no wing guns.
NA-72 NA-44 Brazil (Army) Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN1/S1H1 Wasp (600 hp) 30 Attack bomber, fitted with small DF loop under fuselage.
NA-74 NA-44 Chile (FACh) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 12 Attack bomber, fitted with small DF loop under fuselage.
NA-75 Harvard II Canada (RCAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 100 Follow on order to NA-66
NA-76 Harvard II United Kingdom (RAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 450 Originally ordered by France, taken over by RAF, many to RCAF
NA-77 AT-6A/SNJ-3 USAAC, USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 637
NA-78 AT-6A/SNJ-3/3C USAAC, USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 568 As NA-77, first aircraft built in Texas, and to use name "Texan"
NA-79 SNJ-2 USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340-56 Wasp 25
NA-81 Harvard II United Kingdom (RAF) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 125 same as previous RAF Harvard II order.
NA-84 AT-6B USAAC Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1 Wasp (600 hp) 400
NA-85 SNJ-3 USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 0 Cancelled duplicate of NA-78 for record purposes.
NA-88 AT-6C/AT-6D/XAT-6E
SNJ-4/SNJ-5
USAAC/USAAF, USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp/Ranger V-770 9331 (last 800 as NA.121) AT-6D used 24 volt electrics, vs previous 12 volt systems. XAT-6E used Ranger V-770.
NA-119 AT-6D Brazil (FAB) Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 81 20 examples built in Brazil under licence
NA-121 AT-6D/AT-6F USAAF, USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 4378 800 AT-6Ds, 211 SNJ-5, 956 AT-6F and 411 SNJ-6. AT-6F and SNJ-6 have clear fixed rear canopy section
NA-128 AT-6D USAAF, USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 0 Canceled orders to have been built in Texas.
NA-168 T-6G/LT-6G USAF/US ANG Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 109 Re-manufactured and updated from earlier versions. Mostly internal but canopy simplified slightly.
NA-182 T-6G/LT-6G USAF/US ANG Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 824 as per NA-168, Re-manufactured/updated.
NA-186 Harvard 4 Canada (RCAF)/US MDAP Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 555 Design Data for Canadian Car and Foundry possibly to build Harvard IV or T-6G, sole new post war production.
NA-188 T-6G/LT-6G USAF/US ANG Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 107 Re-manufactured and converted from earlier versions.
NA-195 T-6G/LT-6G USAF/US ANG Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 11 Re-manufactured and converted from earlier versions.
NA-197 T-6G USAF/US ANG Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 110 Re-manufactured and converted from T-6D.
NA-198 SNJ-8 USN Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp 0 Cancelled Contract for SNJ-8 (similar to T-6G)

Operators

  • Argentina
    Argentine Army Aviation (SNJ-4)
    Argentine Naval Aviation (SNJ-4 and 30 SNJ-5Cs for carrier operations)
  • Austria
    Austrian Air Force
  • Belgium
    Belgian Air Force
  • Biafra
    Biafran Air Force
  • Bolivia
    Bolivian Air Force
    Naval Aviation
  • Brazil
    Brazilian Air Force
  • Canada
    Royal Canadian Air Force
    Royal Canadian Navy
    National Research Council (still in use)
  • Republic of China (Taiwan)
    Republic of China Air Force
  • Chile
    Chilean Air Force
  • Colombia
    Colombian Air Force
  • Republic of the Congo
    Congolese Air Force
  • Cuba
    Cuban Air and Air Defense Force
  • Denmark
    Danish Air Force
  • Dominican Republic
    Dominican Air Force
  • El Salvador
    Air Force of El Salvador
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    Mexican Air Force Total of 120 delivered, 47 AT-6 and 73 T-6C
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    Swedish Air Force 145 Harvard IIb as Sk 16A, 106 T-6A, T-6B, SNJ-3, SNJ-4 as Sk 16B and 6 SNJ-2 as Sk 16C.
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Specifications (T-6G)

General characteristics

Crew: two (student and instructor)
Length: 29 ft (8.84 m)
Wingspan: 42 ft (12.81 m)
Height: 11 ft 8 in (3.57 m)
Wing area: 253.7 ft² (23.6 m²)
Empty weight: 4,158 lb (1,886 kg)
Loaded weight: 5,617 lb (2,548 kg)
Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney R-1340-AN-1 Wasp radial engine, 600 hp (450 kW)

Performance

Maximum speed: 208 mph at 5,000 ft (335 km/h at 1,500 m)
Cruise speed: 145 mph (233 km/h)
Range: 730 miles (1,175 km)
Service ceiling: 24,200 ft (7,400 m)
Rate of climb: 1200ft/min (6.1 m/s)
Wing loading: 22.2 lb/ft² (108 kg/m²)
Power/mass: 0.11 hp/lb (kW/kg)

Armament

Provision for up to 3× 0.30 in (7.62 mm) machine gun

In popular culture

After World War II, the National Air Races established a unique racing class for the AT-6/Texan/Harvard aircraft; This class continues today at the Reno National Air Races each year.

Since the Second World War, the T-6 has been a regular participant at air shows, and was used in many movies. For example an early appearance in A Yank in the R.A.F.(1941), decades later in Tora! Tora! Tora! and The Final Countdown, converted single-seat T-6s painted in Japanese markings represent Mitsubishi Zeros, whereas in A Bridge too Far it represented the razorback Republic P-47 Thunderbolt. Some were modified for the Dutch film Soldaat van Oranje to represent the Dutch pre-World War II fighter Fokker D.XXI. The T-6 also appeared in the Pat Benatar video for Shadows of the Night. The New Zealand Warbirds "Roaring 40s" aerobatic team use ex-Royal New Zealand Air Force Harvards. The Flying Lions Aerobatic Team uses Harvards acquired from the South African Air Force.

Last updated February 20, 2016  
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "North American T-6 Texan".
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