The Martin 4-0-4 is an American pressurized passenger airliner built by the Glenn L. Martin Company. As well as airline use initially in the United States, it was used by the United States Coast Guard and United States Navy as the RM-1G (later as the VC-3A).
Design and development
When production of the earlier Martin 2-0-2 was stopped due to problems with wing structural failure the company decided to re-wing an improved version (which had already flown as the Martin 3-0-3). The new aircraft was the Martin 4-0-4, it had structural changes to the wings, pressurization and lengthened slightly to take 40 passengers. Like the earlier 2-0-2, the 4-0-4 was a cantilever monoplane with a standard tail unit (cantilever tailplane and single vertical stabilizer). It had an airstair in the lower tail section for passenger loading and unloading, retractable tricycle landing gear and was powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-2800-CB16 radial piston engines.
First deliveries in 1951 were made to Eastern Air Lines (EAL) who had ordered 60 and Trans World Airlines (TWA) who had ordered 40. The only other new aircraft from the production line were delivered to the United States Coast Guard who had ordered two as executive transports with the designation RM-1G later changed to RM-1 and then in 1962 to VC-3A. In 1969 they were transferred to the United States Navy and they had both been withdrawn from use by 1970. A total of 103 aircraft was built at the Glenn L. Martin factory in Baltimore.
TWA operated their 40 4-0-4s under the name "Skyliner" on scheduled services in the eastern part of the USA between 1 September 1950 and the last flight on 29 April 1961. EAL operated their 4-0-4s in the eastern USA using the class name "Silver Falcon". The first EAL schedule was flown on 5 January 1952 and retirement came in late 1962.
Later in their airline career, as they became displaced from the EAL and TWA fleets by turbine-powered aircraft, the 4-0-4s became popular with "second level" operators who needed to replace their Douglas DC-3s. One of the last 'major' US airlines with a large fleet of piston engined airliners was Southern Airways who operated 25 model 4-0-4s on a network of scheduled services from Atlanta as at July 1969, mainly ex-Eastern Airlines aircraft. Southern Airways' last 4-0-4 service was flown on 30 April 1978.
The last airworthy 4-0-4, an ex TWA aircraft, was ferried to the Planes of Fame Museum in February 2008, where it is on display together with a Martin 2-0-2.
Aero Proveedora Proa Ltda
- Dominican Republic
- United States
Atlantic Southeast Airlines (1972-1979)
Eastern Airlines (1951-1962)
Florida Airlines (1977-1981)
Marco Island Airways (1973-1981)
Mohawk Airlines (1961-1965)
Pacific Air Lines (1959-1968)
Ozark Air Lines (1964-1967)
Piedmont Airlines (1961-1972)
Provincetown-Boston Airlines (1975-1984)
Southeast Airlines (1971-1976)
Southern Airways (1961-1978)
Trans World Airlines (1950-1961)
- United States
United States Coast Guard
United States Navy
Notable accidents and incidents
19 February, 1955: TWA Flight 260 crashed into the Sandia Mountains, killing the three crew and 13 passengers.
1 April, 1956: TWA Flight 400 crashed on takeoff from Greater Pittsburgh International Airport, 22 of the 36 people aboard the aircraft died.
2 July 1963: Mohawk Airlines Flight 121 crashed during takeoff from Rochester-Monroe airport, killing seven people and injuring 36.
2 October, 1970: In the Wichita State University Crash, a charter flight crashed near Silver Plume, Colorado killing 31 of the 40 people onboard.
- General characteristics
Crew: 3 or 4
Length: 74 ft 7 in (22.73 m)
Wingspan: 93 ft 3 in (28.42 m)
Height: 28 ft 5 in (8.66 m)
Wing area: 864 ft² (80.27 m²)
Empty weight: 29,126 lb (13,211 kg)
Gross weight: 44,900 lb (20,366 kg)
Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-2800-CB16 radial piston engine, 2,400 hp (1,790 kW) each
Maximum speed: 312 mph (502 km/h)
Range: 1,080 miles (1,783 km)
Service ceiling: 29,000 ft (8,840 m)