| Dornier 228-212
8Q-IAR (sn 8244)
Island Aviation Services Do 228 landing on runway 36.
Photo taken Jan. 2009
Male International Airport, Republic of Maldives
(MLE / VRMM)
The Dornier Do 228 is a small twin-turboprop STOL utility aircraft, manufactured by Dornier GmbH (later DASA Dornier, Fairchild-Dornier) from 1981 until 1998. In 1983 Hindustan Aeronautics bought a production licence and manufactures the 228 for the Asian market sphere. Approximately 270 Do 228 were built at Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany and Kanpur, India. In August 2006, 127 Dornier Do 228 aircraft (all variants) remain in airline service. RUAG will commence building a Dornier 228 New Generation at the same place in Germany using structural parts supplied by HAL. It will be basically the same aircraft with improved technologies and performances, such as a new five blade propeller, glass cockpit or longer range.
Design and development
In the late 1970s, Dornier GmbH developed a new kind of wing, the TNT ("Tragflügel neuer Technologie"), subsidized by the German Government. Dornier tested it on a modified Do 28D-2Skyservant and with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-110 turboprop engines. Finally, Dornier changed the engine and tested the new aircraft, which was named Do 128 with two Garrett AiResearch TPE-331-5 engines. The company developed a new fuselage for the TNT and TPE 331–5 in two variants (15- and 19-passenger) and named both project-aircraft E-1 (later Do 228-100) and E-2 (later Do 228-200). At ILA '80, Dornier presented the new aircraft in public. Both the prototypes were flown on 28 March 1981 and 9 May 1981 for the first time.
After German certification was granted on 18 December 1981, the first Do 228 entered service in the fleet of Norving Flyservice in July 1982. British and United States certification followed on on 17 April and 11 May 1984 respectively. Over the years Dornier offered the 228 in upgraded variants and with special equipment for special missions. In 1998 the production line was stopped for better development of the successor Fairchild-Dornier 328.
The major operators of the 127 Do 228 aircraft remaining in service in August 2006 include:
- A Soriano Aviation (3)
- Aerocardal (2)
- AeroVip PT (2)
- Agni Air (3)
- African Air Services Leasing (2)
- Air Caraïbes (2)
- Air Marshall Islands (1)
- Air West Coast (1)
- Daily Air (Taiwan) (4)
- Divi Divi Air (1)
- Dolphin Air (6)
- Dornier Aviation Nigeria (15)
- Gorkha Airline (2)
- Jagson Airlines (2)
- Indian Airlines (2)
- Inter Island Airways (2)
- Iran Aseman Airlines (5)
- LASSA (Chile)(1)
- Luftfahrtgesellschaft Walter (6)
- Maldivian (1)
- Manx2 (2)
- New Central Airlines (3)
- Sita Air (4)
- Summit Air (7)
- Vision Airlines (8)
- Yeti Airlines (2)
Some 35 other airlines operate smaller numbers of the aircraft. Lufttransport (Norway) operates 2 Dornier 228's and AeroVip (Portugal) operates 2 Do 228, also SATA (Portugal) operates these aircraft.
- Cape Verde
- Finland: Two aircraft used by the Finnish Border Guard.
Kato Airline Flight 603
On 4 December 2003, a Dornier 228 of Kato Air operating Flight 603 was struck by lightning, causing a fracture to the control rod that operated the elevator. The aircraft subsequently landed heavily just short of the runway at Bodø and was written off. Both crewmembers sustained serious injuries while both passengers sustained slight injuries. The aircraft, registered LN-HTA, was written off.
On 24 February 1985, the Polar 3, a Dornier 228 of the Alfred Wegener Institute, was shot down by guerrillas of the Polisario Front over West Sahara. All three crew members died. Polar 3, together with unharmed Polar 2, was on its way back from Antarctica and had taken-off from Dakar, Senegal, to reach Arrecife, Canary Islands.
Polar 4 was severely damaged in January 2005 during a rough landing at the British over-wintering station Rothera on the Antarctic Peninsula. As it was impossible to repair the plane, the aircraft had to be decommissioned. Since then, scientific and logistical tasks of polar flights have been performed by Polar 2.
Hull-loss accidents: 22 with 109 fatalities
Other occurrences: 1 with 3 fatalities
Unfiled occurrences: 1 with 0 fatalities
Hijackings: 1 with 0 fatalities
Selection of incidents: 3 with 0 fatalities
Specifications (Dornier Do 228-212)
Crew: 1 or 2
Capacity: 19 passengers
Payload: 2,340 kg freight (5,158 lb)
Length: 16.56 m (54 ft 4 in)
Wingspan: 16.97 m (55 ft 8 in)
Height: 4.86 m (15 ft 11 in)
Wing area: 32.0 m² (344 sq ft)
Empty weight: 3,739 kg (8,243 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 6,600 kg (14,550 lb)
Powerplant: 2× Garrett AiResearch TPE-331-5-252D turboprop, 578 kW (776 shp) each
Never exceed speed: 472 km/h (255 knots, 293 mph)
Maximum speed: 433 km/h (234 knots, 269 mph) at 3,050 m (10,000 ft) (max cruise)
Cruise speed: 315 km/h (170 knots, 196 mph) at 610 m (2,000 ft) (long-range cruise)
Stall speed: 148 km/h (80 knots, 92.5 mph) with flaps
Range: 1,111 km (600 nmi, 691 mi) with full payload
Service ceiling: 8,535 m (28,000 ft)
Rate of climb: 7.5 m/s (1,870 ft/min)