|Cessna 305A/L-19A Birddog
N1100T (sn 22020)
Photo taken July 2010 @ Oshkosh (EAA AirVenture Fly-in), WI - USA (OSH / KOSH)
|Photo © Marcel Siegenthaler
The Cessna L-19/O-1 Bird Dog was a liaison and observation aircraft. It was the first all metal fixed wing aircraft ordered for and by the United States Army since the U.S. Army Air Forces separated from the Army in 1947, becoming its own branch of service, the U.S. Air Force. The Bird Dog had a lengthy career in the U.S. military as well as in other countries.
Design and development
The U.S. Army was searching for an aircraft that could adjust artillery fire, as well as perform liaison duties, and preferably be constructed of all metal, as the canvas covered Liaison aircraft used during World War II (primarily Stinson and Piper products) had a short service life. The US Army issued the specification for a two-seat liaison and observation monoplane and the Cessna Aircraft Company submitted the Cessna Model 305A, a development of the Cessna 170. The Cessna 305A was a single-engined, light-weight, strut-braced high-wing monoplane with a tailwheel landing gear. The greatest difference from the Cessna 170 was that the 305A only had two seats, in tandem configuration (the largest tandem-seat aircraft that Cessna ever produced), with angled side windows to improve ground observation. Other differences included a re-designed rear fuselage, providing a view directly to the rear (a feature later dubbed "Omni-View" and carried to Cessna single-engine aircraft after 1964), and transparent panels in the wings' center-section (similar to those found on the Cessna 140 and the later Cessna 150 Aerobat model), which allowed the pilot to look directly overhead. A wider door was fitted to allow a stretcher to be loaded.
The U.S. Army awarded a contract to Cessna for 418 aircraft which was designated the L-19A Bird Dog. The prototype Cessna 305 (registration N41694) first flew on 14 December 1949. Deliveries began in December 1950 and the aircraft was soon in use fighting its first war in Korea from 1950 through 1953. An instrument trainer variant was developed in 1953, later versions had constant-speed propellers and the final version the L-19E had a larger gross weight. Cessna produced 3,431 aircraft which was also built under license by Fuji in Japan.
The L-19 received the name Bird Dog as a result of a contest held with Cessna employees to name the aircraft. The winning entry, submitted by Jack A. Swayze, an industrial photographer, was selected by a U.S. Army board. The name was chosen because the role of the army's new aircraft was to find the enemy and orbit overhead until artillery (or attack aircraft) could be brought to bear on the enemy. While flying low and close to the battlefield, the pilot would observe the exploding shells and adjust the fire via his radios, in the manner of a bird dog (Gun dog) used by game hunters.
The Defense Department ordered 3,200 L-19s that were built between 1950 and 1959. The aircraft were used in various utility roles such as artillery spotting, front line communications, medevac and training. In 1962 the Army L-19 was redesignated the O-1 (Observation) Bird Dog and entered its second war in Vietnam. During the early 1960s the Bird Dog was flown by South Vietnamese airmen (ARVN-Army Republic Vietnam/SVAF South Vietnamese Air Force), US Army aviators, and clandestine (Ravens) aircrews. In 1964 the Department of Defense (DOD) issued a memorandum directing that the U.S. Army turn over its "Fixed Wing" O-1 Bird Dogs to the US Air Force, while the army began its transition to a "rotor-wing" force (helicopters).
The U.S. Army was allowed to retain some O-1 Bird Dogs for artillery observation (spotting/forward air control) until the new army helicopters entered service. All previous operators mentioned above, including the US Army, continued using the O-1 Bird Dog throughout the war, however the bulk of the O-1s were operated by the U.S. Air Force from 1964 until the end of the war in 1975 (flown primarily by South Vietnamese airmen in 1975). During the Vietnam War, the aircraft were used for reconnaissance and forward air control (FAC). Supplementing the O-1, then gradually replacing it, was the USAF O-2 Skymaster, a faster, twin-engine aircraft which entered Vietnam in the mid 1960s. The last U.S. Army O-1 Bird Dog was officially retired in 1974.
During the course of the Vietnam War, 469 O-1 Bird Dogs were lost to all causes. The USAF lost 178, the USMC lost seven, and 284 were lost from the US Army, South Vietnamese Forces, and clandestine operators. Three Bird Dogs were lost to enemy surface-to-air missiles (SAMs).
As the USAF phased out the O-1 in favor of the O-2, many O-1s in the United States were sold as surplus. During the 1970s and 1980s, Ector Aircraft remanufactured many as the Ector Mountaineer with their original powerplants, and as the Ector Super Mountaineer with the Lycoming O-540-A4B5.
Many O-1s were turned over to the Civil Air Patrol for such duties as aerial search. Many of these were damaged in groundloops and other accidents, and eventually all were replaced by tricycle-gear Cessnas. The only O-1 remaining in CAP inventory is a static display on a post in front of CAP headquarters at Maxwell Air Force Base. Many of these aircraft were sold to private pilots as recreational aircraft. Others went to museums where they are usually displayed in their military combat markings.
In Canada, the Royal Canadian Air Cadets use ex CAF L-19 aircraft equipped with a towing rig to tow their Schweizer 2-33A gliders for the Air Cadet gliding program. These particular L-19 variants are used in the Atlantic Region, Eastern Region, and Pacific regions. They have been modified for noise reduction by the use of a smaller-diameter, 4-blade Hoffman composite propeller in all regions except Pacific Region and exhaust modification. The fuel delivery system has also been modified from the original design, placing the fuel selector valve closer to the pilot. As with most aircraft used for glider towing, the aircraft has also been outfitted with mirrors mounted to the struts.
The L-19/O-1 is a popular ex-military "warbird" with private pilots. As of June, 2009, more than 330 were registered with the Federal Aviation Administration. Others are owned and operated outside the United States by individuals and flying organizations.
On 29 April 1975, South Vietnamese Air Force Major Bung-Ly loaded his wife and five children into a two-seat Cessna O-1 Bird Dog and took off from Con Son Island. After evading enemy ground fire Major Bung-Ly headed out to sea and spotted the aircraft carrier USS Midway. With only an hour of fuel remaining, he dropped a note asking that the "runway" [sic] be cleared so that he could land. Knowing there was no room for this to happen, Rear Admiral Lawrence Chambers ordered that $10 million (US currency) worth of UH-1 Huey helicopters be pushed overboard into the South China Sea. The Bird Dog that Major Bung-Ly landed is now on display at the National Museum of Naval Aviation at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida.
American television personality/actor Ed McMahon was a Marine Corps aviator and piloted one in Korea, flying more than 80 combat missions during 1953.
The Dash-One (official Operating Manual) for the O-1E issued to USAF pilots in 1970 had the following statement: "rear seat rated for one pilot/observer or two Vietnamese."
- L-19A (Cessna 305A)
Initial production version for United States Army, redesignated O-1A in 1962, 2,486 built.
L-19As converted to dual control trainers, redesignated TO-1A in 1962.
L-19A with a Boeing XT-50-BO-1 210 shp turboprop engine, one built.
L-19A with a Continental CAE XT51-T-1 210 shp turboprop engine, two built.
- TL-19D (Cessna 305B)
Instrument trainer version of the L-19A with dual controls, redesignated TO-1D in 1962, 310 built.
- L-19E (Cessna 305C)
Improved version of the L-19A with equipment changes and higher gross weight, became O-1E in 1962, 469 built.
60 L-19As delivered to the United States Marine Corps, redesignated O-1B in 1962.
- OE-2 (Cessna 321)
Redesigned version of the OE-1 with Cessna 180 wings and remodified fuselage, became O-1C in 1962, 27 built.
L-19A redesignated in 1962.
O-1As converted as trainers.
OE-1 redesignated in 1962.
OE-2 redesignated in 1962.
A number of TO-1Ds converted for Forward Air Controller duties with the United States Air Force.
TL-19D redesignated in 1962.
L-19E redesignated in 1962.
- O-1F (Cessna 305E)
Forward Air Controller conversions of the O-1D for the USAF.
- O-1G (Cessna 305D)
Forward Air Controller conversions of the O-1A for the USAF.
- SIAI-Marchetti SM.1019
Turboprop variant for the Italian Army
Australian Army - single example
Austrian Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Cadets
Chilean Air Force
Japanese Ground Self-Defense Force
Royal Lao Air Force
Armed Forces of Malta Air Wing
Royal Norwegian Air Force
Philippine Air Force
- South Korea
Republic of Korea Air Force
- South Vietnam
Vietnam Air Force
Spanish Air Force
Taiwan Army (Nationalist China or Rep. of China Army)
Taiwan Marine Corps (Nationalist China or Rep. of China Marine Corps)
Royal Thai Air Force
Royal Thai Army
Royal Thai Navy
- United States
Civil Air Patrol
United States Air Force
United States Army
United States Marine Corps
Vietnam People's Air Force (captured South Vietnamese aircraft)
Length: 25 ft 9 in (7.85 m)
Wingspan: 36 ft 0 in (10.97 m)
Height: 7ft 3½ in (2.22 m)
Wing area: 174 ft² (16.16 m²)
Empty weight: 1,614 lb (732 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 2,400 lb (1089 kg)
Powerplant: 1× Continental O-470-11 flat six piston, 213 hp (159 kw)
Maximum speed: 130 mph (209 km/h)
Range: 530 miles (853 km)
Service ceiling: 20,300 ft (6,200 m)
Rate of climb: 1,040 ft/min (317 m/min)