|CASA C212-CC N109BH (sn 192)
This Smokejumper CASA 212 is on standby at the North Cascades Smokejumper Base at Methow Valley State Airport, WA - USA (S52)
Photo taken June 10, 2011
|Photo © Marcel Siegenthaler
The EADS CASA C-212 Aviocar is a turboprop-powered STOL medium transport aircraft designed and built in Spain for civil and military use. C-212s are also produced under licence in Indonesia by Indonesian Aerospace, formerly called IPTN but now known as IAe. The design was initially marketed under the name of Aviocar, but EADS-CASA no longer uses that name in referring to the C-212.
A total of 478 C-212s of all variants had been delivered through the end of 2008 by EADS-CASA. EADS-CASA predicts that an additional 85 aircraft will be delivered in the 2007-2016 time period. EADS-CASA currently builds only the C-212-400, which received Spanish certification in 1998. The C-212-200 is currently built in Indonesia, and IAe is also reportedly preparing to begin assembly of -400 models.
Design and development
During the late 1960s, the Spanish Air Force was still operating the already outdated Junkers Ju 52 and Douglas C-47, unpressurized and non-turbocharged piston-powered three- or two-engined craft. CASA developed the C-212 as a more modern alternative using the lighter and more reliable turboprop engine, with the first prototype flying on March 26, 1971. In 1974, the Spanish Air Force decided to acquire the Aviocar to update its fleet.
Airlines took note of the type's success with the military, so CASA developed a commercial version, the first examples of which were delivered in July 1975. In August 2006 a total of 30 CASA C-212 aircraft (all variants) remain in airline service around the world.
The C-212 has a high-mounted wing, a boxy fuselage, and a conventional tail. The tricycle undercarriage is non retractable. It has space for 21-28 passengers depending on configuration. Since the C-212 does not have a pressurized fuselage, it is limited to relatively low-flight-level airline usage (below 10,000 ft (3,000 m) MSL). It is thus ideal for short legs and regional airline service.
Currently the C-212 is used in a variety of utility and paramilitary roles due to its low cost, large cabin and rear loading ramp. Models have been converted to SAR configuration for the Swedish Coast Guard and Argentinian Coast Guard and with skis by Aeronautical Engineers Australia for the Australian Antarctic Division and operated by Skytraders.
• Series 100
Original military production version. Also known as C-212-5, C-212-5 series 100M, and by the Spanish Air Force as the T-12B and D-3A (for medevac aircraft), 129 built.
VIP transport version, T-12C.
Six pre-production C-212As converted for photo-reconnaissance missions, TR-12A.
Original civil version
Two pre-production C-212As converted for use as navigational trainers, TE-12B.
Manufactured under licence in Indonesia since 1976, IPTN producing 28 NC-212-100s before switching to NC-212-200.
• Series 200
Stretched version with updated engines (Honeywell TPE331-10R-511C or -512C, rated at 900 shp (671 kW) each), introduced in 1979. The CASA C-212-200 is also a popular skydiving aircraft, known for its large capacity, fast climb, and large tailgate exit ramp.
C-212 series 200M
Military version known as T-12D in Spanish service and Tp 89 for the Swedish Air Force. Specialised ASW and maritime patrol aircraft have been built from this version.
C-212-200 built under licence by IPTN.
C-212-200 built under licence by IPTN, Designed as Maritime Patrol Aircraft
• Series 300
Standard production version from 1987 on. Engines were Honeywell TPE331-10R-513C, also rated at 900 shp (670 kW) continuous (925 shp maximum). The propellers were changed from four-bladed Hartzell composite blade propellers to four-bladed Dowty-Rotol all-metal propellers. Winglets and a larger vertical stabilizer area provide improved performance, and the addition of a nose baggage compartment gives the nose a more streamlined look than the Series 200. Various systems have been incrementally upgraded, including the addition of an integrated autopilot system.
C-212-M series 300 (Series 300M)
C-212 series 300 airliner
26 seat regional airliner.
C-212 series 300 utility
23 seat civil utility version.
C-212 series 300P
Civil utility version with Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-65 engines
• Series 400
Updated version first flying in 1997. US military designation is the C-41. Engines are Honeywell TPE331-12JR-701C, derated to 925 shp (690 kW) maximum. The high-derated -12JR engines provide significantly better high-altitude and hot weather performance than the -10 engines used in the -300 series. Otherwise, airframe dimensions and flight performance are very similar to those of the Series 300. Compared to the Series 300, many of the various aircraft systems have been refined and improved. Standard instrumentation has been updated to include a four-tube Rockwell-Collins Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS), a two-tube Integrated Engine Data System (IEDS), and a Universal UNS-1K Flight Management System (FMS) with integrated Inertial Reference Unit (IRU). Many avionics and instruments have been relocated from underneath the floor to the nose compartment. An identifying feature of the -400 series is the squared-shaped cabin windows, which differentiate it from the circular cabin windows of the -300 series.
Currently, this version is built only in Spain, and is not certified for civilian use in the United States.
- Australia - (Australian Antarctic Division)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Cape Verde
- Costa Rica
- Republic of Korea
- Papua New Guinea
- Republic of the Congo
- South Africa
- United States - Arctic Transportation Services, Bighorn Airways, Blackwater Security, ConocoPhillips/BP Shared Services, Bering Air, Murray Aviation
- Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi Air Force - four delivered 1982
Angolan Air Force
Argentine Coast Guard - five delivered 1988-1990
Argentine Army Aviation - Two 212-200
Bolivian Air Force - one delivered 1989
Bophuthatswana Air Force - one delivered 1985, to South African Air Force.
Botswana Defence Force
Chadian Air Force - two delivered in 1988
Chilean Air Force - six delivered 1978
Chilean Army - former Spanish Air Force aircraft
Chilean Navy - four delivered 1978
Colombian Air Force
SATENA - nine delivered 1984-1989
- Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic Air Force
French Air Force - five delivered 1988
- Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea Air Force
Indonesian Air Force
Royal Jordanian Air Force - four delivered 1975-1976
Lesotho Defence Force - one delivered 1989
Mexican Navy - 7 delivered 2002
Military of Malta - on loan, delivered 2009
Nicaraguan Air Force - four delivered 1977-1978
Panamanian Air Force - six delivered 1982-1988
Paraguayan Air Force - four C.212-200 delivered 1984 and one C.212-400 delivered in 2003
Portuguese Air Force - 24 delivered 1974-1976. Many were replaced by EADS CASA C-295
- South Africa
South African Air Force
Spanish Air Force - 80 delivered 1974-1984
Spanish Customs Service
Military of Suriname
Swedish Navy - one delivered in 1986
Royal Thai Army
Transkei Defence Force - two delivered 1986
Uruguayan Air Force - five delivered 1981-1982
- United States
United States Air Force - as C-41A.
Venda Defence Force
Vietnamese People's Air Force - 3 C.212-400
Zaire Air Force
Air Force of Zimbabwe - 10 delivered 1983-1986
Incidents and accidents
As of June 2010, CASA C-212s have been involved in 67 hull-loss incidents with a total of 513 fatalities.
February 1, 1988: A Panamanian Air Force C-212 crashed into a mountain near the Panamese-Colombian border, killing all 16 people on board.
December 1, 1989: A United States Army C-212-200 crashed into the Patuxent River while trying to land at the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Maryland, killing all 5 people on board.
January 24, 1990: A Venezuelan Navy C-212 crashed into a mountain due to poor weather, killing all 24 people on board.
March 27, 1990: An Angolan government C-212 was shot down by UNITA rebels near Kuito, killing all 25 people on board.
June 7, 1992: An Executive Air (for American Eagle) CASA C-212 flying from Fernando Luis Ribas Dominicci Airport in San Juan, Puerto Rico crashed short of the runway in Mayagüez, killing both crew members and all three passengers.
March 8, 1994: A Spanish Air Force CASA C-212 was hit in the tail by a Serbian SA-7 missile over Gvozd (then Vrginmost) when ferrying UNPROFOR personnel from Sarajevo. The plane was part of the Ala 37 deployed in Vicenza, Italy. A Croatian Mig-21 had been shot down over the same area on September 14, 1993. The tail control surfaces were damaged, the left engine failed and several passengers were injured. The crew managed to land the aircraft at Rijeka, Croatia. Spanish technicians were able to repair the damage and have the aircraft back in service in 48 hours.
November 27, 2004: "Blackwater 61" Presidential Airways CASA C-212-200 (registration: N960BW / serial nr: 231) was contracted by the US Department of Defense to supply American forces deployed in remote areas of Afghanistan. The airplane entered a box canyon and struck the 14,650-foot (4,470 m) level of Baba Mountain, which has a peak elevation of 16,739 feet (5,102 m). The flight was about 25 nm north of the typical route between Bagram and Farah.
February 22, 2005: An Indonesian National Police C-212 received engine trouble during landing, causing it to crash into the sea. Of the 18 police officers on board, 15 were killed.
October 26, 2006: Swedish Coast Guard CASA C-212-200 (registration: SE-IVF/serial nr: KBV 585) crashed in the Falsterbo Canal during a surveillance mission, killing all four onboard. Eye-witness accounts suggest that the accident was caused by one of the wings of the aircraft somehow detaching from the plane. The preliminary report from the Swedish Accident Investigation Board suggests that the right wing detached due to a fatigue crack which had developed in the load-bearing structure in the wing.
November 15, 2006: Mexican Navy CASA 212-200 Maritime Patrol (serial AMP-114) crashed in the sea in Campeche coast over the Mexican Gulf during a surveillance mission, all crew managed to survive, due to a smooth maneuver, reasons of the accident still unknown.
June 26, 2008: Indonesian Military CASA C-212 was flying from the capital to Bogor, carrying 12 military personnel and six civilians, and was due to test a digital mapping camera, but it disappeared in the Salak Mountain region, about 90 km (60 miles south) of Jakarta. An air force spokesman said it was assumed it had crashed.
October 9, 2009: Uruguayan Air Force CASA C-212 FAU-531, being operated as part of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti crashed west of Fonds-Verettes killing all eleven on board.
June 19, 2010: a Cameroon Aero Service CASA C212 chartered by Sundance Resources crashed in dense jungle after departing Cameroon for Congo, killing all 11 people aboard, including Australian mining magnate Ken Talbot and Sundance personnel, Chairman Geoff Wedlock, Chief Executive Officer Don Lewis, company secretary John Carr-Gregg and non-executive directors John Jones and Craig Oliver. At the time of the accident Talbot was a director of Sundance and its largest shareholder.
February 12, 2011: Sabang Merauke Raya Air Charter CASA C-212, PK-ZAI, carrying 5 crew, crashed after takeoff from Batam, Indonesia, during a test flight after engine maintenecne was performed. All 5 crew were killed.
April 1, 2011: FUGRO Aviation Canada Limited CASA C-212, C-FDKM, carrying 3 crew, crashed attempting landing at Saskatoon Airport, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, after declaring an emergency with an engine failure. Aircraft crashed on a Saskatoon street and hit a concrete barrier. 1 killed, 2 injured.
Specifications (Series 300)
Crew: Two (pilot and co-pilot)
Capacity: 26 passengers (civil version), 24 paratroops or 2,700 kg (5,952 lb) cargo
Length: 16.20 m (53 ft 1¾ in)
Wingspan: 20.28 m (66 ft 6½ in)
Height: 6.30 m (20 ft 8 in)
Wing area: 41.0 m² (441 ft²)
Airfoil: NACA 653-218
Aspect ratio: 10.0:1
Empty weight: 3,780 kg (8,333 lb)
Max takeoff weight: 7,700 kg (16,975 lb)
Powerplant: 2× Garrett AiResearch TPE-331-10R-513C turboprop engines, 617 kW (900 shp) each
Maximum speed: 370 km/h (200 kts, 230 mph)
Cruise speed: 300 km/h (162 knots, 186 mph) (econ cruise)
Stall speed: 145 km/h (78 knots, 90 mph)
Range: 1,811 km (978 nmi, 1,125 miles) econ cruise, max fuel
Service ceiling: 7,925 m (26,000 ft)
Rate of climb: 8.3 m/s (1,630 ft/min)
Up to 500 kg (1,100 lb) of weapons on two hardpoints. Typically, machine gun pods or rocket launchers.