- Aircraft History, Specification and Information -
Bell 412

The Bell 412 is a utility helicopter manufactured by Bell Helicopter. It is a further development of the Bell 212 model, the major difference being the composite four-blade main rotor.

Design and development

The development began in the late 1970s with two Bell 212 being converted into 412 prototypes. An advanced four blade main rotor with a smaller diameter replaced the 212's two blade rotor. A Bell 412 prototype first flew in August 1979. The initial model was certified in January 1981 with the deliveries commencing in the same month.

The 412 model was followed by the 412SP (Special Performance) version featuring larger fuel capacity, higher takeoff weight and more optional seating arrangement. In 1991, the 412HP (High Performance) variant with improved transmission replaced the SP version in production. The current production version, 412EP (Enhanced Performance), is equipped with a dual digital automatic flight control system.

Over 700 Model 412s (including 260 by AgustaWestland) have been built and in operation.

Variants

Bell 412 - Utility transport helicopter.
Bell 412EP - Enhanced performance version.
Bell 412HP - High performance version.
Bell 412SP - Special performance version.
Military 412 - Armed military version.
CH-146 Griffon - Utility transport helicopter for the Canadian Forces.
Bell Griffin HT1 - Advanced training helicopter based on the Bell 412EP, operated by the RAF since 1997 as an advanced flying trainer. Operated by the Defence Helicopter Flying School at RAF Shawbury and the Search and Rescue Training Unit at RAF Valley.
Bell Griffin HAR2 - Search and Rescue helicopter based on the Bell 412EP, operated by 84 Squadron RAF since 2003 at RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus.
Agusta-Bell AB 412 - Civil utility transport version, built under license in Italy by Agusta.
Agusta-Bell AB 412EP - Italian-built version of the Bell 412EP.
Agusta-Bell AB 412 Grifone - Military utility transport version, built under licence in Italy by Agusta.
Agusta-Bell AB 412 CRESO - Italian-built version, fitted with a ground surveillance radar.
NBell 412 - IPTN's licensed product of Bell 412

Operators

Military operators
- Algeria
- Bahrain
- Bangladesh
- Botswana
- Canada
- Chile
- Colombia
- Ecuador
- El Salvador
- Gabon
- Ghana
- Guyana
- Jamaica
- Honduras
- Indonesia:Indonesian Army
- Iran
- Italy
- Lesotho
- Mexico
- Netherlands
- Nigeria
- Norway
- Pakistan
- Panama
- Peru
- Philippines: Philippine Air Force
- Poland
- Saudi Arabia
- Slovenia: Slovenian Air Force and Air Defence
- South Korea: Republic of Korea Air Force: First introduction Time : March, 1982.
- Sri Lanka
- Sweden
- Thailand: Air Force
- Turkey: Turkish Coast Guard
- Uganda
- United Arab Emirates
- United Kingdom
- Venezuela
- Zimbabwe

Civilian and government operators
Australia
- Adelaide Bank Rescue Helicopter Service
- Westpac Life Saver Rescue Helicopter Service
- Fire and Emergency Services Authority of Western Australia
- Ambulance Victoria - Air Ambulance has 4 of the type in service based around the state.
- Emergency Management Queensland, an agency of the Queensland Department of Community Safety which operates, amongst other things, the Queensland Government helicopter rescue service.

Brazil
- Lider Taxi Aereo, serving the Brazil offshore petroleum industry
- Brazilian Federal Police

Colombia
- Government of Antioquia Department

Cyprus
- Police

Czech Republic
- Police of the Czech Republic

Finland
- Finnish Border Guard has 5 AB 412s in service.

Faroe Islands
- Atlantic Airways

India
- Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
- GAIL
- Global Vectra Helicorp

Iran
- Iranian helicopter service company (IHSC)

Japan
- Japan Coast Guard

Slovenia
- Slovenian Police

Trinidad and Tobago
- Bristow Caribbean Operations (Bristow Group), serving the offshore oil/gas industry

United States
- Department of Energy
- United States Park Police
- Delaware State Police
- Los Angeles City Fire Department
- Los Angeles County Fire Department
- New York City Police Department
- Puerto Rico Police Department
- Miami-Dade County Fire Department
- Blackwater USA (private military and security company)
- Chicago Fire Department
- Orange County Fire Authority

Incidents and accidents

On February 6, 2008, a Bell 412 crashed due to a malfunction, killing the Major General Javed Sultan, the commanding officer for Kohat garrison, along with two brigadiers and five other military personnel in South Waziristan Agency. This area is witnessing the brunt of fighting in the ongoing War in North-West Pakistan.

On April 7, 2009, a Bell 412EP presidential helicopter operated by the Philippine Air Force crashed in bad weather on the slopes of Mount Pulag in Tinoc, Ifugao on a flight from Loakan Airport to Lagawe. All eight on board the helicopter died including four key aides of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.

Specifications (412EP)

General characteristics
Crew: 1-2 pilots
Capacity: up to 13 passengers, maximum external load of 4,500 lb (2,040 kg)
Length: 41 ft 9 in (12.7 m)
Rotor diameter: 46 ft (14 m)
Height: 15 ft (4.6 m)
Disc area: 1,662 ft² (154.4 m²)
Empty weight: 6,789 lb (3,079 kg)
Max takeoff weight: 11,900 lb (5,397 kg)
Powerplant: 2× Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6T-3BE Twin-Pac turboshafts, 900 shp (671 kW) each

Performance
Maximum speed: 140 knots (161 mph, 259 km/h)
Cruise speed: 122 knots (140 mph, 226 km/h)
Range: 402 nmi (463 mi, 745 km)
Service ceiling: 20,000 ft (6,096 m)
Rate of climb: 1,350 ft/min (6.86 m/s)
Power/mass: 0.2663 hp/lb (437 W/kg)

Last updated December 16, 2009
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Bell 412".
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