- Aircraft History, Specification and Information -
Airbus A318 Elite
 

The Airbus A320 family is a family of short- to medium-range, narrow body, commercial passenger jet airliners manufactured by Airbus. The family includes the A318, A319, A320 and A321, as well as the ACJ business jet.

The first member of the A320 family – the A320 – was launched in March 1984, first flew on 22 February 1987, and was first delivered in 1988. The family was soon extended to include the A321 (first delivered 1994), the A319 (1996), and the A318 (2003). The A320 family pioneered the use of digital fly-by-wire flight control systems in commercial aircraft. Although there has been a continuous improvement process since introduction, currently the A320 Enhanced programme includes greater improvements.

As of 31 October 2010, a total of 4453 Airbus A320 family aircraft have been delivered, of which 4370 are in active service. In addition, another 2292 aircraft are on firm order. According to Airbus, it ranked as the world's fastest-selling jet airliner family according to records from 2005 to 2007, and as the best-selling single generation aircraft programme.

Airbus A318 Elite - Comlux Aviation - HB-IPP
Airbus A318-112 Elite (CJ)
HB-IPP (sn 2910)
Comlux Aviation
Photo taken June 09, 2007
Hamburg Fuhlsbuttel, Germany (HAM / EDDH)
Photo Copyright & Thanks to
Thomas Piskol
Airbus A318 Elite - Comlux Aviation - HB-IPP - Interior
Airbus A318-112 Elite (CJ)
HB-IPP (sn 2910)
Comlux Aviation
A view at the luxury cabin of HB-IPP
Photo taken September 19, 2007
Moscow Vnukovo, Russia (VKO / UUWW)
Photo Copyright & Thanks to
Sergey Riabsev - Russian AviaPhoto Team
Airbus A318-112 Elite (CJ) D-AUAA NAS - National Air Services
Airbus A318-112 Elite (CJ)
D-AUAA (sn 3333)
NAS - National Air Services
Photo taken November 26, 2007
Hamburg - Fuhlsbuttel, Germany (HAM / EDDH)
Photo Copyright & Thanks to
Kim Philipp Piskol

Development

Background
A narrow-body Airbus of a comparable size to the successful Boeing 727 could offer advanced technology, improved operating economics, and various passenger capacities. The digital technology in the A320 would herald a two-generation technological leap over the all-analogue 727 and be a generation ahead of the Boeing 737-300/-400/-500 series. The A320 was targeted at the global fleet replacement requirements for the 727 and early variants of the 737.

The A320 was an evolution from the JET (Joint European Transport) study commenced in June 1977 and based at the then BAe (formerly Hawker Siddeley) site in Weybridge, Surrey, U.K.. The Hawker Siddeley team had previously produced a design called the HS.134 "Airbus" in 1965, an evolution of the HS.121 (formerly DH.121) Trident, which shared much of the general arrangement of the later JET3 study design. The name "Airbus" at the time referred to a BEA requirement, rather than to the later international programme.

Alongside BAe (who at the time were not part of Airbus) were MBB, Fokker-VFW and Aérospatiale. The design within the JET study that was carried forward was the JET2 (163 passengers), which then became the Airbus S.A1/2/3 series (Single Aisle), before settling on the A320 name for its launch in 1984.

After the oil price rises of the 1970s, Airbus needed to minimise the trip fuel costs of the A320. To that end, Airbus incorporated advanced features including fly-by-wire flight control, composite primary structures, centre-of-gravity control using fuel, glass cockpit (EFIS) and a two-person flight deck. The end result was that the A320 consumed 50% less fuel than the 727. According to a study cited by the Stockholm Environmental Institute, the A320 burns 11,608 kilograms of jet fuel flying between Los Angeles and New York City, which is about 77.4 kilograms per passenger in an A320 with 150 seats.

Bernard Ziegler was the initiator of the aircraft's then revolutionary fly-by-wire flight controls with sidestick cockpit controller and full glass cockpit. He successfully convinced aviation authorities of the concept's validity.

Production
Airbus requires about eight months to build an A320 jetliner. Components from various Airbus plants are transported to the final assembly plant at Hamburg Finkenwerder for the A318/A319/A321 and to Toulouse Blagnac for the A320. Nearly all assemblies are moved using Airbus' A300-600ST 'Beluga' outsized transporters.

The Airbus A320s sold to China to be delivered between 2009 and 2012 will be assembled in the People's Republic of China in Tianjin. Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg for the next generation of short range as part of its Power8 organisation plan begun under ex-CEO Christian Streiff.

The A320 family production rate in 2008 was slightly more than 32 aircraft per month. In March 2010, Airbus announced it was increasing production to 36 per month, and suggested a further increase to 38. In August 2010, Airbus announced that it was increasing production of A320 airliners, to reach 40 per month by 2012.

Design

The Airbus A320 family are low-wing cantilever monoplanes with a conventional tail unit with a single fin and rudder. They have a retractable tricycle landing gear and are powered by two wing mounted turbofan engines.

Compared to other airliners of the same class, the A320 features a wider single-aisle cabin of 155.5 inches (3.95 m) outside diameter, compared to 148 inches (3.8 m) in the Boeing 737 and 131.6 inches (3.34 m) in the Boeing 717, and larger overhead bins, along with fly-by-wire technology. In addition, the aircraft has a spacious cargo hold equipped with large doors to assist in expedient loading and unloading of goods.

The A320 features an ECAM (Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitor) which gives the flight crew information about all the systems of the aircraft. With the exception of the very earliest A320s, most can be upgraded to the latest avionics standards, keeping the aircraft advanced even after two decades in service.

The flight deck is equipped with EFIS with side stick controllers. At the time of the aircraft's introduction, the behaviour of the fly-by-wire system (equipped with full flight envelope protection) was a new experience for many pilots.

Three suppliers provide turbofan engines for the A320 series: CFM International with their CFM56, International Aero Engines, offering the V2500 and Pratt & Whitney whose PW6000 engines are only available for the A318 variant.

Technology
Technology used in the A320 includes:

  • The first fully digital fly-by-wire flight control system in a civil airliner.
  • Fully glass cockpit rather than the hybrid versions found in aircraft such as the A310, Boeing 757 and Boeing 767.
  • The first narrow body airliner with a significant amount of the structure made from composites.
  • The Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) concept, which is included in all Airbus aircraft produced after the A320. This system constantly displays information concerning the aircraft's engines, as well as other key systems such as flight controls, pneumatics and hydraulics, to the pilots on the two LCD displays in the centre of the flightdeck. ECAM also provides automatic warning of system failures and displays an electronic checklist to assist in handling the failure.
  • Newer Airbus used LCD (liquid crystal display) units in the flight deck of its A318, A319, A320, and A321 flight decks instead of the original CRT (cathode ray tube) displays. These include the main displays and the backup artificial horizon, which was an analogue display prior to this. LCDs weigh less and produce less heat than CRT displays; this change saves around 50 kilograms on the plane's total weight.
  • Early A320 planes used the Intel 80186 and Motorola 68010, in 1988 Intel 80286 family CPUs. The flight management computer contained six CPUs, running in three logical pairs, with 2.5MBytes of memory.
  • Digital head-up displays are available.

The A320 family is improved continuously, in the A320 Enhanced programme and the NSR, for "New Short-Range aircraft" as a far future replacement.

Operational service

The Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) issued the type certificate for the A320 on 26 February 1988. After entering the market in March 1988 with Air France and the former Australian domestic airline, Ansett, Airbus expanded the A320 family rapidly, launching the 185-seat A321 in 1989 (first delivered in 1994), the 124-seat A319 in 1993 (first delivered in 1996), and the 107-seat A318 in 1999 (first delivered in 2003).

Competition
The A320 family was developed to compete against the Boeing 737 Classics (-300/-400/-500) and the McDonnell Douglas MD-80/90 series, and has since faced challenges from the Boeing 737 Next Generation (-600/-700/-800/-900) and the Boeing 717 during its two decades in service. As of 2010, as well as the Boeing 737, the A320 family faces competition from Embraer's E-195 (to the A318), and the CSeries being developed by Bombardier to the A318/A319.

Airbus has shipped 4425 A320 series aircraft since their certification/first delivery in early 1988, with another 2288 on firm order (as of 30 September 2010). In comparison, Boeing has shipped 6543 737s since late 1967, with 5037 of those deliveries since March 1988, and has a further 2127 on firm order (as of 30 September 2010). Based on figures since 1988 when they first entered direct competition, Airbus delivered on average 196 A320 series aircraft per annum, while on average 223 Boeing 737s were delivered.

Variants

The A320 has given rise to a family of aircraft which share a common design but are slightly smaller (the A319), significantly smaller (the A318), or slightly larger (the A321). Passenger capacity ranges from 100 to 220. They compete with the Boeing 737, 757-200, and 717. All have the same pilot type rating. Today all variants are available as corporate jets. US Airways is the largest airline operator of A320 family of aircraft in North America with 214 as of the end of 2009.

Technically, the name "A320" only refers to the original mid-sized aircraft, but it is often informally used to indicate any of the A318/A319/A320/A321 family. All variants are able to be ETOPS (Extended-range Twin-engine Operational Performance Standards) certified.

Airbus A320
The A320 series has two variants, the A320-100 and A320-200. Only 21 A320-100s were ever produced; these aircraft, the first to be manufactured, were delivered only to Air Inter (an airline later acquired by Air France) and British Airways (as a result of an order from British Caledonian Airways made prior to its acquisition by British Airways). The A320-200 features wingtip fences and increased fuel capacity over the A320-100 for increased range; other than that differences are minimal. Five of the last A320-100 aircraft, operated by British Airways, were disposed of at the end of 2007. The final A320-100, operated by Air France was retired in 2010. Typical range with 150 passengers for the A320-200 is about 2,900 nautical miles (5,400 km). It is powered by two CFMI CFM56-5 or IAE V2500 with thrust ratings between 25,500 to 27,000 pounds force (113 kN to 120 kN). The direct Boeing competitor is the 737-800.

Airbus A319
The A319 is a shortened, minimum change version of the A320. With virtually the same fuel capacity as the A320-200, and fewer passengers, the range with 124 passengers in a two-class configuration extends to 3,600 nautical miles (6,700 km), the highest in its class. A319s are among the most popular variants of the A320 family. In 2003 EasyJet took delivery of A319s with smaller galleys (as EasyJet does not serve meals on some of its shorter flights) and 156 seats in a single class configuration. To satisfy evacuation regulations, additional over-wing exits were included. Easyjet later became the largest A319 operator.

According to The New York Times the A319 was introduced at the request of Steven Udvar-Hazy.

With jet fuel prices rising dramatically, Northwest Airlines is replacing the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 aircraft it has had in service for decades with the A319, because it is 27% more fuel efficient than the DC-9.

The large easyJet order of 120 A319s plus 120 options was among the biggest aircraft sales deals in recent times, rivaled only by chief competitor Ryanair's order for Boeing 737 aircraft.

It is powered by the same types of engine as the A320. JAA certification and service entry, with Swissair, took place in April 1996.

Airbus A319CJ
This is the corporate jet version of the A319. It incorporates removable extra fuel tanks which are installed in the cargo compartment, and an increased service ceiling of 41,000 feet (12,000 m). Range with 8 passengers' payload and the standard four auxiliary fuel tanks is 6,000 nautical miles (11,100 km). Upon resale the aircraft can be reconfigured as a standard A319 by removing its extra tanks and corporate cabin outfit, thus maximising its resale value. It is also known as the ACJ, or Airbus Corporate Jet. Producer is Airbus Executive and Private Aviation, it is a part of Airbus S.A.S., an EADS company.

The aircraft seats up to 39 passengers but may be outfitted by the customers into any configuration. DC Aviation and Reliance Industries are among its users. The A319CJ competes with other corporate jets such as the Gulfstream V, the Boeing 737-700 based Boeing Business Jet (BBJ), and Bombardier's Global Express. It is powered by the same engine types as the A320.

The A319CJ is used by the Escadron de transport, d'entraînement et de calibrage which is in charge of transportation for France's officials and also by the Flugbereitschaft of the Luftwaffe for transportation of Germany's officials. An ACJ serves as a presidential or official aircraft of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Venezuela.

Airbus A319LR
The A319LR is a standard A319 that incorporates some features and additional fuel tanks of the A319CJ. Airbus offers it in a standard airline layout, although some customers operate it in an all-business class layout with 48 seats, specifically tailored for exclusive business class services on intercontinental routes. The A319LR, compared to the A319CJ, has typically four removable auxiliary fuel tanks, but can be expanded to six. Range of the A319-115LR with four tanks is 5,600 nmi (10,400 km; 6,400 mi). It is certified for 180 minute ETOPS, which allows both Atlantic and Pacific routes. Certified by both European EASA and American FAA, the A319LR and ACJ are the only business jets approved for public transport on both sides of the Atlantic.

The Australian Antarctic Division uses an A319-115LR with six auxiliary tanks for a range of 7,500 mi (12,100 km). It is operated on their behalf by Skytraders to provide an intercontinental link from Hobart (Tasmania) to the Wilkins blue ice runway approximately 70 km from their research station at Casey on the Antarctic continent. Each flight can carry 40 passengers together with 6.5 tonnes of cargo.

Lufthansa, Swiss International and Air France offer a premium business service between Europe and the USA using A319LRs operated by the French Aero Services Executive and the Swiss PrivatAir. However, Qatar Airways fit their A319LRs with standard seatings with 110 seats. Air France operates the A319LR in a reduced density 2-class layout and flies it to the Middle East and central Asia.

Airbus A321
The A321 is a stretch of the A320. The A321 programme was launched in November 1989 and the first development aircraft first flew on 11 March 1993. European certification was awarded in December that year.

Compared with the A320 the A321's major change is the stretched fuselage, with forward and rear fuselage plugs totalling 6.93 m (22 ft 9in) (front plug immediately forward of wing 4.27 m/14 ft, rear plug directly behind the wing 2.67 m/8 ft 9in).

Other changes include strengthening of the undercarriage to cope with the higher weights, more powerful engines, a simplified and refined fuel system and larger tires for better braking. A slightly modified wing with double slotted flaps and modifications to the flight controls allows the A321's handling characteristics to closely resemble the A320's. The A321 features an identical flightdeck to that on the A319 and A320, and shares the same type rating as the smaller two aircraft.

The basic A321-100 features a reduction in range compared to the A320 as extra fuel tankage was not added to the initial design to compensate for the extra weight. To overcome this Airbus launched the longer range, heavier A321-200 development in 1995 which has a full-passenger transcontinental US range. This is achieved through higher thrust engines (V2533-A5 or CFM56-5B3), minor structural strengthening, and greater fuel capacity with the installation of one, or optionally two 2,900 litre (766US gal/638Imp gal) additional centre fuel tanks.

The A321-200 first flew from Daimler Benz (later DaimlerChrysler, now Daimler AG) Aerospace's Hamburg facilities in December 1996.

Airbus A318
The A318, also known as the "Mini-Airbus" or "baby bus", is the smallest member of the A320 family, and the smallest Airbus of any kind. It originated from the AVIC and Airbus Industrie Asia cooperation programme AE31X. During development, it was known as the "A319M5," thus indicating its history as a direct derivative of the A319. "M5" indicates "minus five fuselage frames." The aircraft is six metres shorter and four tonnes lighter than the A320. To compensate for the reduced moment arm it has a larger vertical stabiliser, making it 80 centimetres taller than the other A320 variants. Pilots who are trained on the other variants may fly the A318 with no further certification, since it features the same type rating as its sister aircraft.

The A318 has a passenger capacity of 107 in a two-class configuration. It is intended to replace early Boeing 737 and Douglas DC-9 models, though it is also a rival to the 737-600. Boeing also offered their 717 aircraft as a competitor, although it was suitable primarily for regional routes and did not have the A318's longer range capabilities.

The A318 is available with a variety of different maximum take-off weights (MTOW) ranging from a 59 tonne, 2,750 km (1,500 nautical mile) base model to a 68 tonne, 6,000 km (3,240 nautical mile) version. The lower MTOW enables it to operate regional routes economically whilst sacrificing range and the higher MTOW allows it to complement other members of the A320 family on marginal routes. The lighter weight of the A318 gives it an operating range 10% greater than the A320, allowing it to serve some routes that the A320 would be unable to: London-New York, Perth-Auckland and Singapore-Tokyo, for instance. Its main use for airlines, however, is on short, low-density hops between medium cities.

During the design process, the A318 ran into several problems. The first one was the decline in demand for new aircraft following the September 11, 2001 attacks. Another one was the new Pratt & Whitney turbofan engines, which burned more fuel than expected: by the time CFMI had a more efficient engine ready for market, many A318 customers had already backed out, including Air China and British Airways. America West Airlines, which had selected the Pratt & Whitney engines, amended its A318 orders, opting instead for A319 or A320 aircraft. Trans World Airlines cancelled a significant order for 50 A318 after being acquired by American Airlines, which does not operate any A320 family aircraft (although neither did TWA when the order was originally placed). While Airbus was hoping to market the A318 as a regional jet alternative, laws in both the U.S. and Europe have kept it in the same class as larger aircraft for calculating landing fees and the like, so regional operators have avoided it.

It is powered by two CFM56-5 or Pratt & Whitney PW6000 engines with thrusts between 21,600 and 23,800 lbf (96 and 106 kN). Launch customers Frontier Airlines and Air France took deliveries in 2003, with Frontier receiving their models in July of that year. The price of an A318 ranges from $56 to $62 million, and operating costs are between $2,500 and $3,000 for each flight hour.

While designing the A318, Airbus included a number of technology upgrades, many of which have been integrated into the rest of the A320 family. Some are also finding their way to the A380 jumbo aircraft. These upgrades include:

  • A new touchscreen LCD panel at the flight attendants' stations in the cabin, to simplify access to environmental and communications controls
  • New cabin lighting based on LED light sources, instead of halogen and fluorescent bulbs
  • Electrically powered backup braking systems, improving upon the older design using reserve hydraulic pressure
  • The use of laser beam welding during construction, used to fasten floor stringers to the lower fuselage shell. Laser welding eliminates the need for rivets to secure the joint, which saves weight, and is faster, saving on assembly time

Orders for the A318 have been quite slow, but significantly better than for its direct competitor the B737-600. Airbus had received 83 orders (25 July 2009) for this model compared to 69 for the B737-600. The sales pace has been influenced by the strong sales of the Bombardier CRJ900 and Embraer E-Jets series. Notable A318 customers were Air France, 18; Frontier Airlines, 10 (+ 1 order); LAN Chile, 20 orders; and Mexicana, 10 orders. In October 2006 an A318 was successfully tested at London City Airport for steep approach compatibility, which will allow operators to serve airports constrained by noise restrictions, tall buildings or difficult terrain. British Airways operates two A318 aircraft from London City Airport via a refuelling stop at Shannon (on the outbound leg only) to New York Kennedy Airport. They are operated in a 32-seat all business class configuration as BA001, the flight number previously used by Concorde on this route.

Airbus A318 Elite
On 10 November 2005 Airbus announced the A318 Elite. The Airbus A318 Elite is aimed at the medium-range market for flights of up to 4,000 nm (7,400 km) range, with a choice of two cabin layouts seating up to 14 and 18 passengers, and will be powered by CFM engines. Comlux Aviation became the launch customer by ordering three A318 Elite aircraft.

Airbus A320 family Freighter
A programme to convert A320 and A321 aircraft into freighters is being set up by Airbus Freighter Conversion GmbH. Airframes will be converted by EADS EFW in Dresden, Germany, and Zhukovsky, Russia. The launch customer AerCap signed a firm contract on 16 July 2008 to convert 30 of AerCap’s passenger A320/A321s into A320/A321P2F (passenger to freighter). On February 7, 2009, Airbus announced that the technical definition for the P2F version had been frozen, and reaffirmed entry into service in 2012. Also announced were technical details, including 21–28 metric tonnes of payload capacity (depending on variant), a 121-inch (3.1 m) aft cargo door and confirmation that the conversion will have ETOPS, allowing to significantly further range of A320/A321P2F than other freighters of similar size. As of October 2010, Airbus expects the aircraft to be certified in late 2012.

A320 Enhanced

A320 Enhanced (or A320E) is the working title for a series of improvements of the A320 series. The improvements incorporate engine improvements, an aerodynamic tidy-up, partly by adding large curved winglets, weight savings and a new cabin.

Re-engined A320
Airbus is working on a re-engining programme of the A320 known as the New Engine Option (NEO). The choice for new engines include the CFM International LEAP-X and the Pratt & Whitney PW1000G. The new engines will burn 16% less fuel: the actual fuel gain on an A320 installation will be slightly less, since 1-2% is typically lost upon installation on an existing aircraft. Airbus CEO said to be "comfortable" with the projections of 20% lower maintenance cost for the Pratt & Whitney's PW1000G, compared with today's engines.

New winglets
In 2006, Airbus tested three styles of winglet, intended to counteract the wing’s induced drag and wingtip vortices more effectively than the previous wingtip fence. The first design type to be tested was developed by Airbus and was based on work done by the AWIATOR programme. The second type of winglet used a more blended design and was created by Winglet Technology LLC, a company based in Wichita, Kansas as well as the third type.

Two aircraft were used in the flight test evaluation campaign, the prototype A320 F-WWBA which had been retained by Airbus for testing and new F-WWDL which later delivered to JetBlue Airways and registered as N636JB, which was fitted with both types of winglets.

Despite the anticipated efficiency gains and development work, Airbus announced that the new winglets will not be offered to customers, claiming that the weight of the modifications required would negate any aerodynamic benefits.

On 17 December 2008, Airbus announced it was to begin flight testing an existing blended winglet design developed by Aviation Partners as part of an A320 modernisation programme. The aircraft used for the test programme is MSN001 (F-WWBA), the original A320 prototype airframe, powered by the CFM56 engine.

On 15 November 2009, Airbus announced that it would be adding winglets of its own design, called 'Sharklets', to A320 aircraft commencing in 2012 with Air New Zealand. The Airbus winglets reduce fuel burn by 3.5 percent and offer a payload increase of 500 kilograms (1,100 lb) or increase the aircraft's range by 100 nautical miles (190 km) at the original payload. This corresponds to an annual CO2 reduction of around 700 tonnes per aircraft. The 'Sharklets' are to be manufactured and distributed by Korean Air Aerospace.

New cabin
The cabin was fitted to more than 600 aircraft (March 2009) since 2007. Airbus claims it offers better luggage stowage and a quieter cabin, packaged with a more modern look and feel. Additionally, improved cabin efficiency by a new galley concept, reduced weight, improved ergonomics and food hygiene and recycling requirements. LED ambience lighting is optionally available. Anytime LEDs are used for the Passenger Service Unit (PSU) and passengers can get information with touchscreen displays.

Older A320 series aircraft can be updated.

Replacement aircraft
Airbus was studying a future replacement for the A320 series, tentatively dubbed NSR, for "New Short-Range aircraft". The follow-on aircraft to replace the A320 was named A30X. Airbus North America President Barry Eccleston states that the earliest the aircraft could be available is 2017. In January 2010, John Leahy, Airbus's Chief Operating Officer Customers, stated that any all new single aisle craft is unlikely to be constructed before 2024/2025.

Orders and deliveries

By the end of October 2010 a total of 6,745 aircraft of the A320 family have been ordered and 4,453 delivered.

The following chart shows the number of aircraft, by type, delivered to customers in a particular year. The bottom row is the total yearly production of all A320 family aircraft. 2010 data is incomplete.

Type 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 Total
A318 1 6 13 17 8 9 10 8 72
A319 47 88 98 105 137 142 87 72 85 89 112 88 53 47 18 1266
A320 235 221 209 194 164 121 101 119 116 119 101 101 80 58 38 34 48 71 111 119 58 58 16 2469
A321 45 87 66 51 30 17 35 33 35 49 28 33 35 22 16 22 16 617
Total 328 402 387 367 339 289 233 232 236 257 241 222 168 127 72 56 64 71 111 119 58 58 16 4425

List of orders, deliveries and operators of the Airbus A320 family, as of 31 October 2010:

Airline A318 A319 A320 A321 Total
Ord Del Opr Ord Del Opr Ord Del Opr Ord Del Opr Ord Del Opr
Airbus Executive and Private Aviation 23 13 13 76 62 57 12 11 15 1 111 86 86
ACES Colombia 8 8 8 8
Adria Airways 2 5 5 1 5 5 3
Aegean Airlines 17 12 18 4 17 12 22
Aer Lingus 17 13 30 3 3 6 20 16 36
AerCap 7 7 18 18 3 3 28 28
Aerdragon Aviation Partners 13 9 13 9
Aero Lloyd 4 4 5 5 9 9
Aerodynamics 1 1
Aeroflot 4 4 15 1 1 34 26 17 17 31 22 66
Aerogal 1 1
Aerostar Leasing 12 12 12 12
AerVenture 13 12 43 37 3 3 59 52
Afriqiyah Airways 3 3 3 11 4 4 14 7 7
Aigle Azur 1 1 5 3 4 1 1 12
Air Arabia 44 1 19 44 1 19
Air Arabia Egypt 2 2
Air Arabia Maroc 3 3
Air Astana 6 1 7 2 6 10
Air Berlin 13 13 13 44 36 20 3 3 9 60 52 42
Air Cairo 4 4 4 4 4 4
Air Calédonie International 1 1 1 1 1 1
Air Canada 37 37 40 28 28 41 10 10 10 75 75 91
Air China 30 30 33 30 2 13 39 25 25 99 57 71
Air China Zhejiang Company 3 3 3 3
Air France 18 18 18 19 19 45 45 32 57 7 6 24 89 75 144
Air Guinee 2 2
Air Inter 9 9 22 22 7 7 38 38
Air Ivoire 1 1
Air Jamaica 1 4 4 6 1 4 4 8
Air Lease Corporation 31 20 51
Air Macau 5 2 1 1 7 1 1 14
Air Malta 5 2 2 7 2 2 12
Air Mauritius 2 2 2 2 2 2
Air Méditerranée 1 7 8
Air Memphis 2 2
Air Moldova 3 3
Air New Zealand 15 5 12 15 5 12
Air One 26 26 5 26 26 5
Air Sweden 2 2
Air VIA 5 5
AirAsia 175 84 84 175 84 84
Airblue 2 14 1 2 14 5
Aircraft Purchase Fleet 54 11 54 11
Airphil Express 2 2
ALAFCO 26 23 26 23
AlMasria Universal Airlines 2 2
Al Sahaab Aircraft Leasing 1 1 1 1
Alitalia 12 12 12 11 13 49 23 23 23 46 48 84
All Nippon Airways (ANA) 31 31 29 7 7 38 38 29
Alphastream AG 16 3 4 2 20 5
America West 35 35 23 23 58 58
Amsterdam Airlines 2 2
Ansett Australia 19 19 19 19
Armavia 4 3 7
Asiana Airlines 4 4 11 8 8 15 12 12 26
Astraeus (airline) 1 1
Atlantic Airways 1 1
Atlas Blue 4 4
Atlasjet 2 6 8
Austrian Airlines 7 7 7 8 8 8 6 6 6 21 21 21
Avianca 15 6 5 32 18 17 47 24 22
Avianca Brazil 3 1 4
Avianova 5 5
Aviation Capital Group 9 2 81 26 8 4 98 32
AWAS 77 1 2 79 1
Azerbaijan Airlines 3 3 3 4 3 3 7
B&H Airlines 2 2
BBAM Aviation Services LTD 4 4 4 4
Bahrain Air 2 4 6
Bangkok Airways 6 3 9
Batavia Air 2 7 9
Beijing Capital Airlines 25 25
Belair 2 7 9
Belle Air 2 2 4
Berkut Air 1 1
BH Air 1 4 5
BMED - British Mediterranean Airways 2 2 2 2
BMI - British Midland 11 6 6 7 11 8 8 17 14 26
BOC Aviation 17 17 106 58 5 5 128 80
British Airways 2 2 2 33 33 33 51 47 42 16 16 11 102 98 88
Brussels Airlines 6 6
Bulgaria Air 3 3 6
Canadian Airlines 2 2 2 2
CASGC 7 7
Cebu Pacific 10 10 10 24 3 12 34 13 22
Chengdu Airlines 6 6
China Eastern Airlines 10 5 15 89 63 95 20 15 20 119 83 130
China Eastern Xibei Airlines 13 13 13 13
China Northern Airlines 10 10 10 10
China Southern Airlines 14 14 41 80 55 64 37 37 56 131 106 161
Chongqing Airlines 3 4 7
CIT Group 39 31 90 64 11 11 140 106
Compagnie Africaine d'Aviation 1 1
Condor Berlin 12 12 12 12 12 12
Corse Méditeranée - CCM Airlines 2 3 5
Croatia Airlines 8 4 4 2 2 3 10 6 7
Cyprus Airways 2 2 3 8 8 7 10 10 10
Czech Airlines 14 6 8 6 6 8 2 20 12 18
DAE Capital 52 52
Delta Air Lines 57 69 126
Donbassaero 4 4
Dragonair 5 5 11 2 2 6 7 7 17
Druk Air 2 2 2 2 2 2
East Air 1 1
EasyJet 192 159 159 35 23 25 4 227 182 188
Edelweiss Air 3 3 3 3 3 3
EgyptAir 12 12 13 4 4 4 16 16 17
Etihad Airways 2 20 13 20 15
Finnair 5 5 11 9 9 12 9 4 6 23 18 29
First Choice Airways 4 4 4 4
First Nation Airways 3 3
Flightlease 9 9 1 1 10 10
Freebird Airlines 5 2 7
Frontier Airlines 9 9 9 19 19 41 10 2 7 38 30 57
GATX Flightlease 2 2 2 2
GB Airways 8 7 7 6 15 13
GECAS 12 12 69 69 236 148 10 10 327 239
Germania 5 5
Germanwings 31 23 30 31 23 30
GoAir 18 8 10 18 8 10
Guinness Peat Aviation 51 51 51 51
Gulf Air 2 29 22 12 2 29 22 16
Hainan Airlines 28 23 2 28 2 2 56 25 4
Hamburg International 12 10 8 12 10 8
Hebai Airlines 1 1
Hellas Jet 2 2
Hong Kong Airlines 30 30
Iberia 23 20 23 78 66 42 19 19 19 120 105 84
Iberworld 2 2 7 2 2 7
Indian Airlines 19 19 24 35 35 41 20 20 20 74 74 85
IndiGo Airlines 100 34 29 100 34 29
Interjet 20 8 20 20 8 20
Intl Lease Finance Corp - ILFC 153 153 213 212 90 90 456 455
Israir Airlines 3 2 3 3 2 3
Izmir Airlines 3 2 5
JAT - Jugoslovenski Aerotransport 8 8
Jazeera Airways 39 10 7 39 10 7
JetBlue Airways 173 118 113 173 118 113
Jetstar Airways 41 6 47
Jetstar Asia Airways 11 11
Jetstar Pacific Airlines 2 2
Jordan Aviation 1 1
Juneyao Airlines 2 12 3 15 12 3 17
Kawasaki Leasing 8 8 8 8
Kingfisher Airlines 3 26 2 23 6 6 8 32 8 34
Kingfisher Red 55 12 55 12
Kolavia Airlines 2 2
KoralBlue Airlines 1 3 4
Kuwait Airways 3 3 3 3 3 3
Kyrgyz Airways 1 1
LAN Airlines 15 15 15 32 20 19 51 22 24 98 57 58
LAN Argentina 1 1
Leisure International Airways 2 2 2 2
Libyan Airlines 7 2 2 7 2 2
Livingston Energy Flight 3 3
Lotus Air 1 1 4 1 1 4
LTU International 4 4 13 2 2 6 6 13
Lufthansa 31 24 29 70 47 46 61 43 43 162 114 118
Macquerie Aircraft Leasing 1 1 36 36 7 7 44 44
Mahan Air 1 1
Mandala Airlines 2 25 3 25 5
Meridiana Fly 4 12 16
Mexicana de Aviación 16 12 16 12
Middle East Airlines 7 5 5 6 6 6 13 11 11
Mihin Lanka 1 1
Monarch Airlines 2 2 5 7 7 16 9 9 21
MyTravel Airways (UK) 4 4 4 4
Myanmar Airways 2 2
National Air Services 20 9 20 9
Nesma Airlines 2 2
Nile Air 2 9 9 2
NIKI 2 2 2 14 6 8 4 2 2 20 10 12
Northwest Airlines 82 77 80 78 162 155
Nouvelair 4 2 11 2 4 2 13
Nova Airlines 3 3
Olympic Air 7 9 16
Onur Air 5 2 2 10 2 2 15
ORIX Corporation 24 24 24 24
Philippine Airlines 4 15 14 18 15 14 22
Qantas 69 24 1 1 70 25
Qatar Airways 32 14 15 6 5 11 38 19 26
RBS Aerospace 1 1 90 38 91 39
Rossiya Airlines 9 5 14
Royal Air Maroc 4 4 4 4
Royal Brunei Airlines 2 2 4
Royal Jordanian 4 3 3 4 4 3 3 12
Royal Falcon 1 1
Royal Wings 1 1
S7 Airlines 19 23 9 23 28
Sabena 15 15 3 3 3 3 21 21
Safi Airways 1 1
SATA International 4 4
Saudi Arabian Airlines 7 5 27 15 1 1 22 6 28
Scandinavian Airlines System 4 4 4 8 8 8 12 12 12
Shanghai Airlines 5 5 5 5
Shenzhen Airlines 3 3 5 56 25 35 59 28 40
Shorouk Air 2 2 2 2
Sichuan Airlines 14 9 13 18 11 24 20 7 11 52 27 48
SilkAir 8 8 6 19 13 12 27 21 18
Sky Airline 2 2
Sky Airlines 3 2 5
Skywest Airlines 1 1
South African Airways 11 11 11 27 7 38 18 11
SmartLynx Airlines 8 8
Spanair 11 11 19 3 3 5 14 14 24
Spirit Airlines 20 7 26 20 4 2 40 7 32
Spring Airlines 14 3 21 14 3 21
SriLankan Airlines 2 2 3 2 2 3
StarFlyer 4 4
Strategic Airlines 6 6
Sudan Airways 1 1 1 1 1 1
Swiss International Air Lines 7 4 20 3 6 7 33
Swissair 6 6 17 17 6 6 29 29
Syrian Arab Airlines 6 6 6 6 6 6
TACA International Airlines 19 14 9 54 41 16 5 5 5 78 60 30
TAM Airlines 35 21 26 82 49 85 17 7 7 134 77 118
TAME 1 3 4
TAP Portugal 13 13 19 5 5 17 3 3 3 21 21 39
TAROM 4 4 4 4 4 4
Three Twenty Holdings 2 2 2 2
Thomas Cook AG 2 2 2 2
Thomas Cook Airlines Belgium 7 7
Thomas Cook Airlines Scandinavia 6 6 2 6 6 6 8
Thomas Cook Airlines U.K. 10 4 14
Thomsonfly 5 2 7
Tibet Airlines 3 3
Tiger Airways 2 66 16 10 66 16 12
Tiger Airways Australia 9 9
TransAsia Airways 5 5 2 6 6 5 11 11 7
Tunisair 4 4 4 22 13 13 26 17 17
Turkish Airlines 6 5 19 19 25 30 16 21 55 35 51
Turkuaz Airlines 4 3 7
United Airlines 78 55 55 117 98 97 195 153 152
Ural Airlines 7 12 2 7 14
US Airways 69 66 93 68 28 72 78 51 51 215 145 216
USA3000 Airlines 5 5
Uzbekistan Airways 10 2 2 10 2 2
Vietnam Airlines 10 41 15 22 41 15 32
Vietnam Aircraft Leasing Company 10 10
Viking Hellas Airlines 2 2
Virgin America 8 8 10 13 9 24 21 17 34
Vladivostok Air 7 7
Volare Airlines 1 1
Volaris 29 11 21 1 1 2 30 12 23
Vueling Airlines 37 37
Wataniya Airways 7 7
White Airways 3 2 5
Wind Jet 5 7 12
Wizz Air 132 25 29 132 25 29
Wizz Air Bulgaria 3 3
Wizz Air Ukraine 2 2
XL Airways France 3 3
Yemenia Airlines 10 10
Zest Air 1 2 1 3 2 1 4
undisclosed 11 10 18 24 72 1 3 35 104
A318 A319 A320 A321 Total
Ord Del Opr Ord Del Opr Ord Del Opr Ord Del Opr Ord Del Opr
Totals 83 73 72 1521 1268 1267 4307 2492 2413 834 620 618 6745 4453 4370
Backlog 10 253 1815 214 2292

Accidents and incidents

For the entire A320 family there have been 17 Hull-loss Accidents with a total of 795 fatalities as of July 2010. Other occurrences for the A320 include 33 non-fatal incidents such as engine failure, APU fire, runway excursion, and minor collision near gate. There have been 50 incidents of glass cockpit blackout. There have also been seven incidents of nose gear malfunction, including JetBlue Airways Flight 292.

Airbus A319

12 August 2010 – Azerbaijan Airlines Flight 75, operated by Airbus A319-111 4K-AZ04 suffered a collapse of the undercarriage when the aircraft departed the runway on landing at Atatürk International Airport, Istanbul, Turkey. The aircraft was substantially damaged but all 127 passengers and crew escaped unharmed.

24 September 2010 – Wind Jet Flight 243, operated with an Airbus A319-132 EI-EDM experienced a runaway excursion and a broken back carriage when the aircraft attempted landing at Palermo Airport, Italy. Preliminary reports name windshear as one possible cause for the accident. The aircraft was seriously damaged but stopped in the grass out of the runaway. About 20 passengers were injured.

Airbus A320

26 June 1988 – Air France Flight 296, an A320-111, crashed into the tops of trees beyond the runway on a demonstration flight at Mulhouse-Habsheim Airport, France. Three passengers were killed.

14 February 1990 – Indian Airlines Flight 605, an A320-231 carrying 146 people, crashed on its final approach to the Old Airport, Bangalore. 88 passengers and four crew members were killed.

20 January 1992 – Air Inter Flight 148, an A320-111, crashed into a high ridge near Mount Sainte-Odile in the Vosges mountains while on final approach to Strasbourg at the end of a scheduled flight from Lyon. This accident resulted in the deaths of 87 of the aircraft's occupants (five crew members, 82 passengers).

14 September 1993 – Lufthansa Flight 2904, an A320-211, coming from Frankfurt am Main with 70 people, crashed into an earth wall at the end of the runway at Warsaw. A fire started in the left wing area and penetrated into the passenger cabin. The copilot and a passenger died.

22 March 1998 – Philippine Airlines Flight 137, an A320-214, crashed and overran the runway of Bacolod City Domestic Airport, RPVB, in Bacolod, Philippines, plowing through homes near it. None of the passengers or crew died, but many were injured and three on the ground were killed.

23 August 2000 – Gulf Air Flight 072, an A320-212, crashed into the Persian Gulf on approach to Bahrain Airport. All 143 passengers and crew on board lost their lives.

3 May 2006 – Armavia Flight 967, an A320-211, crashed into the Black Sea while attempting to conduct a go-around following its first approach to Sochi Airport, Russia. All 113 passengers and crew on board lost their lives. The accident was a Pilot error / Controlled flight into terrain accident.

17 July 2007 – TAM Airlines Flight 3054, an A320-233, was not able to stop while landing at Congonhas International Airport in São Paulo, Brazil. As of 2009, the accident was caused by pilot error (by positioning the throttle out of the "idle" position) and by bad weather. All 187 passengers and crew died with 12 fatalities on the ground, totalling 199 people.

30 May 2008 – TACA Flight 390, an A320-233 from San Salvador, overran the runway on its final approach to Toncontín International Airport in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, with bad weather conditions. At least five fatalities.

27 November 2008 – XL Airways Germany A320 Flight 888T, a check flight of an A320-232 stalled in a low speed test and control could not be regained, causing the aircraft to crash into the sea off the southern French coast. The aircraft was on lease by XL Airways and scheduled to be returned to Air New Zealand. All seven people aboard died.

15 January 2009 – US Airways Flight 1549. An A320-214 en route from New York City LaGuardia Airport to Charlotte, North Carolina, ditched into the Hudson River several minutes after takeoff. All 150 passengers and five crew survived, with only five serious injuries. The accident was due to a collision with a flock of birds which disabled both engines.

Airbus A321

28 July 2010 – Airblue Flight 202, an Airbus A321 flying from Karachi to Islamabad, crashed in Margalla Hills in Islamabad, Pakistan. It is reported that the pilot was instructed to perform a go-around due to traffic on the runway, however due to severe weather in the city, very low visibility was present. 146 passengers and 6 crew members were on board; four flight attendants, a co-pilot and a captain. Pilot Pervez Iqbal Chaudry was one of the senior pilots in Airblue with more than 35 years of experience. There were no survivors in this crash.

24 August 2010 - BMI BMI Flight BD-996, an Airbus A321-200 flying from Khartoum to Beirut with 42 passengers and 7 crew, was flying at FL360 over northern Sudan when it experienced a number of electrical problems. Both captains and first officers electronic displays had intermittent failures as well as uncommanded application of the left rudder trim and unexpected reactions to the controls. After ECAM message of "ELEC 1 GEN FAULT" the crew shut off the left hand generator and normal operation resumed. Flight continued to Beirut for a safe landing.

Specifications

A318-100 A319-100 / A319LR /A319CJ A320-200 A321-200
Cockpit crew Two
Seating capacity 132 (1-class, maximum)
117 (1-class, typical)
107 (2-class, typical)
156 (1-class, maximum)
134 (1-class, typical)
124 (2-class, typical)
180 (1-class, maximum)
164 (1-class, typical)
150 (2-class, typical)
220 (1-class, maximum)
199 (1-class, typical)
185 (2-class, typical)
Cargo capacity 21.21 m3 (749 cu ft) 27.62 m3 (975 cu ft)
4× LD3-46
37.41 m3 (1,321 cu ft)
7× LD3-46
51.73 m3 (1,827 cu ft)
10× LD3-46
Length 31.44 m (103 ft 2 in) 33.84 m (111 ft 0 in) 37.57 m (123 ft 3 in) 44.51 m (146 ft 0 in)
Wingspan 34.10 m (111 ft 11 in)
Wing area 122.6 m2 (1,320 sq ft)
Wing sweepback 25 degrees
Tail height 12.56 metres (41 ft 2 in) 11.76 m (38 ft 7 in)
Cabin width 3.70 m (12 ft 2 in)
Fuselage width 3.95 m (13 ft 0 in)
Operating empty weight 39,500 kg (87,000 lb) 40,800 kg (90,000 lb) 42,600 kg (94,000 lb) 48,500 kg (107,000 lb)
Maximum zero-fuel weight (MZFW) 54,500 kg (120,000 lb) 58,500 kg (129,000 lb) 62,500 kg (138,000 lb) 73,800 kg (163,000 lb)
Maximum take-off weight (MTOW) 68,000 kg (150,000 lb) 75,500 kg (166,000 lb) 78,000 kg (170,000 lb) 93,500 kg (206,000 lb)
Cruising speed Mach 0.78 (828 km/h/511 mph at 11,000 m/36,000 ft)
Maximum speed Mach 0.82 (871 km/h/537 mph at 11,000 m/36,000 ft)
Maximum range, fully loaded 3,100 nautical miles (5,700 km; 3,600 mi) 3,600 nautical miles (6,700 km; 4,100 mi)
LR: 5,600 nmi (10,400 km; 6,400 mi)
CJ: 6,500 nmi (12,000 km; 7,500 mi)
3,200 nautical miles (5,900 km; 3,700 mi) 3,000 nautical miles (5,600 km; 3,500 mi)
Take off run at MTOW (sea level, ISA) 1,355 m (4,446 ft) 1,950 m (6,400 ft) 2,090 m (6,860 ft) 2,180 m (7,150 ft)
Maximum fuel capacity 24,210 L (5,330 imp gal; 6,400 US gal) 24,210 L (5,330 imp gal; 6,400 US gal) standard
30,190 L (6,640 imp gal; 7,980 US gal) optional
24,050 L (5,290 imp gal; 6,350 US gal) standard
30,030 L (6,610 imp gal; 7,930 US gal) optional
Service ceiling 12,000 m (39,000 ft)
Engines (×2) Pratt & Whitney PW6000 series or
CFM International CFM56-5 series
IAE V2500 series or
CFM International CFM56-5 series
Thrust (×2) 96–106 kilonewtons (22,000–24,000 lbf) 98–120 kilonewtons (22,000–27,000 lbf) 111–120 kilonewtons (25,000–27,000 lbf) 133–147 kilonewtons (30,000–33,000 lbf)

Engines

Aircraft Model Date Engines
A318-111 2003 CFM56-5B8/P
A318-112 2003 CFM56-5B9/P
A318-121 2007 PW6122A
A318-122 2007 PW6124A
A319-111 1996 CFM56-5B5 or 5B5/P
A319-112 1997 CFM56-5B6 or 5B6/P or 5B6/2P
A319-113 1997 CFM56-5A4 or 5A4/F
A319-114 1997 CFM56-5A5 or 5A5/F
A319-115 2002 CFM56-5B7 or 5B7/P
A319-131 1997 IAE Model V2522-A5
A319-132 1997 IAE Model V2524-A5
A319-133 2002 IAE Model V2527M-A5
A320-111 1988 CFM56-5A1 or 5A1/F
A320-211 1988 CFM56-5A1 or 5A1/F
A320-212 1990 CFM56-5A3
A320-214 1996 CFM56-5B4 or 5B4/P or 5B4/2P
A320-216 2005 CFM56-5B6
A320-231 1989 IAE Model V2500-A1
A320-232 1993 IAE Model V2527-A5
A320-233 1995 IAE Model V2527E-A5
A321-111 1995 CFM56-5B1 or 5B1/P or 5B1/2P
A321-112 1995 CFM56-5B2 or 5B2/P
A321-131 1995 IAE Model V2530-A5
A321-211 1997 CFM56-5B3 or 5B3/P or 5B3/2P
A321-212 2005 CFM56-5B1 or 5B1/P or 5B1/2P
A321-213 2005 CFM56-5B2 or 5B2/P
A321-231 1997 IAE Model V2533-A5
A321-232 2005 IAE Model V2530-A5
Last updated November 16, 2010
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Airbus A320 family".
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